Friday, May 31, 2019

A Comparison of The Grapes of Wrath and Anthem Essay -- comparison com

Comparing The Grapes of Wrath and Anthem Two great intellectuals of the early twentieth century wrote works of illustration that have become classics they espoused polar-opposite views, however, of how society best functions. Their battle between communalism, as pictured in John Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath, and individualism, as portrayed in Ayn Rands Anthem, was played proscribed in their novels, and still continues to this day. Based on Ayn Rands password Anthem, Rand would definitely believe that there is a greater danger involved in communalism than in individualism. The book offers a vision of a distant retrograde future in which the candle is the newest invention individualism has been completely suppressed and one of the most commonly used words today, I, is completely unheard of. The book celebrates the heroism of an individual - the main character, Equality 7-2521 - in his fight to promote individual achievement. Once banished for his laissez-faire(a) beliefs, he and his girl, Liberty 5-3000, discover the wonders of human freedom and the word I. With his newfound gift, Equality 7-2521 pledges to return to the civilization and destroy the oppression of the collective spirit, and liberate manhood into a world in which each man leave behind be free to exist for his own sake. It was mainly written as a resolution to the widening acceptance of philosophies of totalitarian governments, but also to the belief of sacrificing individual liberties for the public good, ever-present during the Red Scare. In place of these ideas, Rand developed her theory of Objectivism, which celebrates reason, capitalism, and individuality. Rand expresses these beliefs passim the entirety of the book by showi... ... has to be both. Also, it is good to commit a little bit for the greater good, but you cant sacrifice as much as you would in communalism or as little as in individualism. For example, the sacrificing of civil liberties during the now-present War on Terrorism is becoming too great of a sacrifice also, in the case of Enron, they didnt sacrifice enough, and the result was devastating to many people. Ayn Rand and John Steinbeck, from the perspective of the very early twentieth century, have set forth in their novels opposing views that continue to be debated in the twenty-first century. Based on current events, it seems highly unlikely that the argument over Individualism and Collectivism will be resolved soon, if ever. Sources Rand, Ayn Anthem New York Signet 1961. Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York Penguin Books, 1978.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Social and Spiritual Energy in Middlemarch :: Eliot Middlemarch Essays

Social and Spiritual Energy in Middlemarch I do not believe that it is sufficient to say that Middlemarch explores the ways in which social and eldritch energy can be frustrated it would be more appropriate to say that Middlemarch explores the ways in which social and spiritual energies (ideals if you will) are completely destroyed and perverted. One need only look to Lydgate to overtake an example of idealism being destroyed by the environment in which it is found. At the start of the novel, we are introduced to the young, poor and ambitious and most of all idealistic Doctor Lydgate, who has great plans for the fever hospital in Middlemarch. Throughout the novel, however, we see his plans frustrated by the designs of others, though primarily the hypocritical desires of Nicholas Bulstrode. The second example of the idealism of the young being destroyed by the old is that of Dorothea. This can be seen by her continuing desire to bear a larger part of the worlds misery or to learn Latin and Greek, both of which are continually scotch by Casaubon, though this ends after his death, with her discovery of his selfish and suspicious nature, by way of the codicil. The character who has their ambitions and ideals brought most obviously low is Lydgate. The earliest example is when he has to make the alternative between Fairbrother and Tyke. Both of these characters are rather poor examples of the clergy (Fairbrother because of his gambling, and Tyke because of his rather lazy attitude). Our sympathies are clearly with Fairbrother for a number of reasons he doesnt gamble because he wants to, but because the wage he receives from running his parish alone is too small to support him and the various members of his family that rely on him. Lydgate has to make the choice between some one he likes as a person (Fairbrother) and someone who he needs help from (Bulstrode). It is clear that Lydgate is very similar to Fairbrother in a number of ways both are scientists, and b oth have great hopes for the future. It would therefore seem to be the case that Lydgate would automatically support Fairbrother. However, Bulstrode uses his cash and his influence to ensure Tykes success. Bulstrode is another example of a character that has had his idealism and destroyed, though not by Middlemarch.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Essay --

Bonds and Equities Defining Bonds and Equities Bonds are certificates of obligation or indebtedness, issued by governments and companies to nurture funds repayable at interest over comparatively long periods. Equities are investments exercised by purchasing a share in the ownership of a corporation and are more commonly called stocks or shares (as in the stock market or share market). Bonds have a very favorable relationship with equities. Historically, when equity markets fell, bonds had gone up in value, partially offsetting the fall. When equity markets rise, interestingly, high quality bonds also tend to rise, although to a lesser extent. Therefore for an investor with equity portfolio absent to reduce portfolio volatility or make the portfolio less susceptible to a fall in equity markets bonds are the most appropriate. Bonds generally pay a much higher income than high quality government and corporate bonds to compensate for higher risk. Similar to equities, bonds tend to per form best when economic growth is backbreaking with low stable interest rates. In such an environment the ability of these companies to pay interest and repay their bonds on the maturity date is greatly enhanced. Z. Bodie, 2000 coronation in bonds and equities, usually via stock-markets and other exchanges for financial instruments. So-called portfolio investment is usually relatively easy to re-sell hence this type of investment can flow relatively easily into and out of a countrys stock-markets. This can lead to volatility in share-prices and levels of capital availability. Whats the difference? Equities are shares listed on the stock exchange. Their prices are influenced by the underlying performance of the companies, the sectors in which they operate ... ...easures pertaining to the micro stability of the intermediaries can be subdivided into two categories general rules on the stability of all business enterprises and entrepreneurial activities, such as the legally required amount of capital, borrowing limits and integrity requirements and more specific rules due to the special nature of financial intermediation, such as risk based capital ratios, limits to portfolio investments and the regulation of off-balance activities. White 1996 References Z Bodie, A Kane and A J Marcus. Investments. 5th Ed. Irwin 2000. E J Elton and M J Gruber. Modern Portfolio opening and Investment Analysis. John Wiley 5th Edition 1995. White L., 1996, International regulation of Securities Markets Competition or Harmonization? in Lo A. (ed), The Industrial organization and Regulation of the Securities Industry, NBER, Cambridge

Aboriginal Customary Law VS European Law Essay -- essays research pape

native Australian customary law and European law have been at odds since the first years of the European invasion, but only recently has the clash come into the open. Stuart MacMillan of the aborigine Resource and Development Services in the Northern ground says that remote primeval communities there and in westerly Australia, South Australia and Queensland see no reason why they should submit to "whitefella law".The governments of the Northern Territory and Western Australia are investigating how innate law can be incorporated into state law. Chris Sidoti of the Human Rights Council of Australia says "Some people would say that world rights runs opposite to indigen law, others that it provides a universal standard to which other legal traditions must adapt. Customary law cant remain immutable. The problem for those trying to bring the two dodgings into line is that human rights law derives from a western legal tradition which frequently contradicts Aboriginal law.Colin McDonald, a Darwin barrister and expert in customary law, says that on such issues Australias legal system may simply have to bite the bullet and go against the norms of international human rights.Aboriginal women have often claimed that the law has been slanted to support the rights of indigenous men over women.Lowitja ODonoghue, who formerly chaired the governments Aboriginal affairs body ATSIC, believes that Australian law should be more aggressive in such cases. Some aspects of Aboriginal law are falling out of practice. Chris Sidoti believes that whatever balance is struck willing be as distinct from traditional European law as it is from traditional Aboriginal law. "For traditional people, being put in jail is more inhuman than spearing, and any unified law would have to recognise that. Aboriginal Customary LawThe High Court did, however, conclude in that case (a conclusion confirmed in WA v Commonwealth, Wororra Peoples v WA and geological fault Biljabu and ot hers v WA, High Court, March 16 1995) that some Aboriginal land law (that which attracted the status of native title) god the colonisation process. What is far less certain is the fate of Aboriginal customary laws that were not concerned with title to land. Did traditional laws on subjects such as family relationships, title to goods, community rightness mechanisms, inheritance and criminal law survive c... ...e necessary, and those laws which were to be applied could not be made applicable to all of the Aboriginal peoples but only to some.It would not be inconsistent with the principle of par before the law that, where members of the Aboriginal race have special needs, those should be recognised by special rules laid down by the law. Further, the law is compromising enough to allow the courts to consider the special situation of an Aboriginal party where that is relevant. As the courts have recognised, the sentencing of Aboriginal offenders presents particular difficulties. Jud ges, in an attempt to do justice in discharging the difficult role of sentencing tribal and semi-tribal Aboriginal persons, have gone further. Clearly the ordinary criminal law is capable of facing these difficulties. It is neither necessary, nor desirable, to founder to the Aboriginal peoples the rules of their customary law rather than the general law. The attempt to uphold Aboriginal customary law is one aspect of the notion that the Aboriginal peoples will benefit if they continue to be treated as a class separate from the rest of the community, which must necessarily be a dependent and discriminate class.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Explore how the language used in this passage describes Gatsbys defeat :: English Literature

Explore how the language used in this passage describes Gatsbys defeat and its symbolic significance.Chapter 7 I glanced at Daisy, who was staringSo we drove to thedeath through the cooling twilightExplore how the language used in this passage describes Gatsbysdefeat and its symbolic significance.Chapter septette brings the conflict between Tom and Gatsby into theopen, and their conflict over Daisy brings to the surface troublingaspects of both characters. It opens as the group is gathered in Tomand Daisys house. It becomes a snappy moment as the group finallymeets Daisy and Toms baby. It brings out an interesting consequenceto the relationship of Gatsby and Daisy.When Gatsby source sees the baby Nick saysI dont think he had ever really believed in its existence beforeGatsby and Daisy have been so wrapped up in their own relationship andtheir own contentment that they have never taken the child intoconsideration before. We see Daisy being so possessive of herdaughter. She eagerl y tells the group thatShe doesnt look like her father. She looks like me. Shes got myhair and shape of the face.This is suggesting that she is onerous to make the child totally hersand attempts to keep Toms involvement with the child to the least. Inher life, Daisy owns very little authority. She has no job or means ofindependence, which makes her very pendent on Tom. The child is by chance something she feels she owns and could confidently claims andtells the group it is hers. However the child seems to be attached toher father, as when Daisy asks her of her opinion of her mothersguests the child replies Where is daddyThis is the first tax write-off of Gatsbys defeat. He could make Daisyforget Tom but the child will always be a bond between Daisy and Tom.There was a guts of focus as the child left the room, which waspossibly represented by the heat. The weathers heat made Daisy andthe rest struggle through their speeches as so did the tension toGatsby as he is starting to unco ver the reality and certainty that hisrelationship with Daisy is not as smooth as he thought it was.Tom and Gatsbys first opposition was on which car they should driveinto town. Gatsby did not want Tom to drive his car, whilst Tominsisted on taking his car. Tom won this little quarrel, which waspossibly a representation of the main fight over Daisy.The Circus wagon could possibly be a representation of Daisy. Thecar belonging to Gatsby, but direct Tom has taken it by force.

Explore how the language used in this passage describes Gatsbys defeat :: English Literature

Explore how the language used in this passage describes Gatsbys defeat and its symbolic significance.Chapter 7 I glanced at Daisy, who was stark(a)So we drove to thedeath through the cooling twilightExplore how the language used in this passage describes Gatsbysdefeat and its symbolic significance.Chapter seven brings the contradict between tomcat and Gatsby into theopen, and their conflict over Daisy brings to the surface troublingaspects of both characters. It opens as the group is gathered in Tomand Daisys house. It becomes a vital arcsecond as the group finallymeets Daisy and Toms baby. It brings out an interesting consequenceto the relationship of Gatsby and Daisy.When Gatsby first sees the baby Nick saysI dont think he had ever in truth believed in its existence beforeGatsby and Daisy have been so wrapped up in their own relationship andtheir own contentment that they have never interpreted the child intoconsideration before. We see Daisy being so possessive of herdaughte r. She eagerly tells the group thatShe doesnt look like her father. She looks like me. Shes got myhair and shape of the face.This is suggesting that she is trying to invent the child totally hersand attempts to keep Toms involvement with the child to the least. Inher life, Daisy owns very little authority. She has no job or means ofindependence, which makes her very dependant on Tom. The child ispossibly something she feels she owns and could confidently claims andtells the group it is hers. However the child seems to be attached toher father, as when Daisy asks her of her opinion of her mothersguests the child replies Where is daddyThis is the first implication of Gatsbys defeat. He could make Daisyforget Tom but the child will always be a bond between Daisy and Tom.There was a sense of stress as the child left the room, which waspossibly represented by the heat. The weathers heat made Daisy andthe rest struggle through their speeches as so did the tension toGatsby as he is start ing to uncover the reality and certainty that hisrelationship with Daisy is not as smooth as he thought it was.Tom and Gatsbys first aspiration was on which car they should driveinto town. Gatsby did not want Tom to drive his car, whilst Tominsisted on taking his car. Tom won this little quarrel, which waspossibly a representation of the main fight over Daisy.The Circus wagon could possibly be a representation of Daisy. Thecar belonging to Gatsby, but now Tom has taken it by force.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Healthy Grief Essay

The Book of vocation is a profound story about a man who was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed diabolical ( seam 11). telephone circuit was a man who had a loving family, prospered and was very wealthy. For whatever reason, Satan challenged God regarding Job. Satan told God that if everything were taken away(predicate) from Job, he would surely curse God. It was a bet of sorts. So God gave Satan the power to destroy everything Job had with the exception of Jobs life. Satan took away Jobs possessions, family and health. Unbelievably, even after all his vent, Job still fell to the ground and worshipped God. Job 12-20)The trials and hardships that Job suffered were inconceivable, yet Job seemed to persevere and demonstrate resilience beyond what is human. What made the difference? Was it his faith? This paper lead discuss the five stages of the Kubler-Ross suffer process. It will examine the lucky example of Jobs let grieving process as it relates to th e Bahai faith. The Five stages of Kubler-Ross can be seen throughout the story of Job. According to Kubler-Ross (2013), the grieving process is comprised of five formal stages denial, vexation, bargaining, depression, and finally acceptance.The first stage, denial, rattling enables the person to initially endure an incredible harm. While it may seem counterintuitive, denial is actually a critical aspect of the healthy healing process. It is comparable to entering a stage of shock. The act of denial actually is a protective chemical mechanism that helps a person cope with the overwhelming situations. (Kubler-Ross & Kessler 2013) One could interpret Jobs statement, Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away(Job 121) as a form of denial. Others may interpret it as his unwavering faith in Gods plan.Anger is the next stage, and is absolutely essential to the grieving process. Job is seen voicing his anger, Therefore I will not restrain my mouth, I will speak in the anguish of my spirit I will animadvert in the bitterness of my soul. (Job 711) Pain is the emotion most closely related to and buried under anger. So, in essence, the pain drives anger and anger drives change. As it relates to the grieving process, anger instigates a form of strength and can provide the backbone and structure necessary to move on to the next stage. Kubler-Ross & Kessler 2013) Although Job voices his anger it isnt directed to God but rather the situation.Bargaining in the third stage and is the stage of negotiating. In their mind, a person will go forward in the past, and try anything to tax return to the way things were before. (Kubler-Ross & Kessler 2013) At first glance, it appears Job doesnt ever go through the bargaining stage, he clearly expresses his sadness. He continues to praise and worship God in spite of the losses he is going through. However, one can observe how he clearly wishes he could return to the way things were before. He is wise in heart, and mighty in strength, who hath hardened himself against him, and hath prospered. (Job 94) But his sorrow could certainly be seen as a part of bargaining with God to relieve his sorrow. The fourth stage is depression, the stage where one will experience feelings of emptiness and hopelessness. Some people worry that their feelings of despair will last forever. Yet this stage is part of the natural order of loss, and a critical component of the five stages. When someone is depressed they become withdrawn. They sometimes interrogative mood whether or not they should go on themselves.The depression stage is part of the natural healing process and is a necessary step one essential experience in order to heal. (Kubler-Ross & Kessler 2013) Job reveals his own deep depression he says, My days are swifter than a weavers shuttle, and are played out without hope. (Job 76) Let that day perish wherein I was born, and the night in which it was said. (Job 33) and continues to question why he survived birth and sho uld probably never bring forth been conceived. (Job 33-11). Job is feeling hopeless and is becoming depressed. He also feels his problems are ith no end in sight, and he is experiencing the thoughts of giving up.Acceptance of his trials is plain in Job 13 15-16 Through he slay me, yet will I trust in him, He also will be my salvation. Job accepts that God is wise and puts his trust in him. This stage is about the acceptance of a new reality people change, learn and develop empathy from their brokenheartedness to move on. Acknowledging the pain and moving on doesnt mean the past is forgotten, rather it enables the person to move forward with an open heart and a broader perspective.Job didnt fully understand the purpose of his trials, but he accepted the omnipotence of his God. His faith sustained him just as faith sustains people today. Jobs faith is similar to that of the Bahai faith. Those of the Bahai faith believe that the body, mind, and spirit grow when they are tried by su ffering. Trails or tests are viewed as a gift from God. Those who acquire these tests and persevere will have happiness while those who dont are cowards. They are asked to turn to God and pray when countenance these tests and be thankful. Grief and sorrow do not come to us by chance, they are sent to us by the Divine Mercy for our own perfecting (Bahai International Community 2013).Job persevered and believed there was a reason to why God was putting him through these trials. Studies have shown that those who attend church, pray, and actively form their faith actually suffer less depression and resolve their grief sooner than those with little or no faith at all. (Quick, 2012) Clearly, there appears to be a correlation between spiritual beliefs or faith, and the ability to handle stress and accept tragedies in a more positive way.Healthcare providers, counselors, and clergy have all recognized that having a faith to cling to or a greater belief in life after death can moderation the grieving process. In conclusion, having a belief in a greater power and life after death can make dealing with loss much easier. When a person has something to cling to, it can make dealing with trauma or loss more manageable. If there was no belief in life after death or no belief in a greater power, lifes tragedies would be far more tight to deal with. Its actually healthy to cultivate a belief in something.Like Job, we will all experience some type of loss in our lives. Grief is a common thread to each and every person on the planet. Identifying the stages of grief, and having the resources and skills to cope with grief is crucial for handling grief in a healthy way. Everyone experiences the stages of grief. The difference seems to be faith. People who have a deep sense of faith are better equipped and more pronto navigate the stages of grief. As with Job, their faith allows them to go forward and successfully help others through the grieving process.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Discuss the Extent to Which a Vegetarian Diet Is Healthy

Discuss the boundary to which a vegetarian diet is healthy. To say till what extent a vegetarian diet Is healthy. First of all need to understand what vegetarian diet is and what is mean to be healthy. Among the areas of non-traditional solid food, vegetarian diet is one of the senileest and most common. Vegetarianism is an ancient healing eatable system, which has a deep philosophical meaning, and assuming certain lifestyle.Healthy meaner a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of indisposition or infirmity. However, to adhere vegetarian diet have both positive and negative sides. Mainly, vegetarian diet negatively affect grey-headedest plurality. Firstly, how healthy vegetarian diet is depends only on the home base of vegetarianism. Vegetarians refusing meat and all animals products, are highly at risk of vitamin B-1 2 deficiency, especially additives are necessary for females during pregnancy and for child of vegans.On the othe r hand, locator-vivo- vegetarians have no nutrition risk. They dont get ham iron from meat, however they insensate It with consumption of non-ham Iron from ascorbic acid (Thronged et al 1994). Generally, refusing to meat, decrease possibility to obtain coronary breast disease, hypertension, obesity and conceivably even some cancers. Secondly, scientific studies have established that people who support vegetarianism are lighter in weight than their meat-eating opponents. The tubercle of 1 unit of IBM was found by the EPIC study in the Oxford cohort (Spencer et al 2003).Furthermore, lower IBM decrease rate of type 2 diabetes and gallstones. In opposition, DIM start decrease rapidly over the age 60 in vegetarians and mainly in vegans, which leads to complication to control muscle mass. According to this, old vegans suffer from respiratory disorders which Influence high mortality among them. Nonetheless, the positive side of lower IBM shows in younger persons, what helps them in lifes tyle move faster and be more flexible. Finally, the consumption of meat usually relates with saturated fat, when plant protein is commonly associated with fiber.To be healthy, in all ages, vegans should obtain recommended amount of protein and energy, arguments was presented by national and international recommendation for protein intake by Langley (1995). Adding to this, exceeding daily rate of energy and protein may result health adverse circumstance such as COD_ To geld risk of CHOC, simply lifestyle changes should be made such as being physically active, eating healthy not saturated fat food and have a balanced diet. Moreover, there are some other benefits to keep your health e. G. Reduce risk of stroke and dementia.Taking everything Into account, vegetarian diet revised a plenty evidence which be able to increase your resistance to different sort of diseases, also prevent from obesity and deadly illness. In my opinion obey vegetarian diet and exclude meat from dally ration I n some case brings many profits to your body and health. But, not all sort of people can stand by vegetarian diet or become vegans, in each case there is an exception such as pregnant women and old people that may adversely attest their health, and bring even more harm to their body.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Midterm part 1

Prior to the sixteenth century, racism in the modern sense of that term was much unknown. Oppression and slavery had existed, of course, but before the beginning of the African slave-trade, these had never been based on skin color. Racism, like altogether forms of oppression, is ultimately rooted in a capitalistic economic system that relies on heavy-handed control and oppressive authority in order to maintain itself and concentrate the greatest tot up of wealth into as few hands as possible. When thither legal controls and sheer force begin to fail, it causes necessary for the ruling dissever to create a mythology. In early Virginia, this mythology took the form of what was essentially a divide and conquer strategy.Those Englishmen who came to the Chesapeake region of their own volition in the early 17th century shake off into one of two categories landless(prenominal) nobility, generally the younger sons of aristocrats and landless peasants who came as indentured servants i n hopes of receiving land of their own land once the term of their function contract had expired. The Portuguese had started the African slave trade over a century earlier. The English had made attempts to enslave the local native Indians, but as the Indians were masters at surviving in their home environment, it was nearly impossible to keep them as slaves. Africans, uprooted and separated from their culture and isolated in a alien environment seemed an ideal solution (Zinn, 25-27).While Eric Fone argues that white Englishmen in Jamestown and the Chesapeake area had varying degrees of liberty, the fact is that true liberty depended on the ownership of land. In Fones spectrum, the freest people were those who of course owned their own land. Indentures were somewhere in the middle of this scale, enjoying a partial freedom.This may have been true, depending on your definition. An indenture agreed to become a virtual slave for a term of seven years which is what indentured servitude entailed a peasant could get passage to North America and a land grant of fifty acres once their period of servitude was completed. However in practice, this rarely happened indentured servitude was so harsh that many died before the monetary value of their contract was over (Fone). Others ran off to join local Indians (the reverse, significantly, was never true), or gave up their claim to land in exchange for a shorter term.Despite cardinal racism on the part of some English gentry (mostly stemming from cultural associations with the color black), the nature of slavery at that time was different from it was later to become. African slaves during the early history of the dependance had many legal rights similar to those of indentured servants. The line between indentured servitude and slaver could often become blurred. There was no real reason to separate black and white during the first seventy years or so, nor deny blacks the status that was extended to any other worker. In f act, Africans slaves and English indentures did the same work, often side-by-side. There is documented evidence of fraternization, socializing and even sexual relations across racial lines (Zinn, 31-32)By the time the Virginia colony was viable and indentured servants lived long enough to complete their terms, arable land had become unavailable, due to the increasing number of landless gentry who had managed to acquire big estates often illegally. This led to serious tensions between the growing numbers of indentures who were unable to claim the land to which the law (in theory) entitled them, and the large estate owners who controlled the best acreage. Eventually, there was an uprising by the landless working class against the landed gentry.After Bacons Rebellion, the ruling class, began to understand the precariousness of their position. One problem was the possibility of win uprisings among disenfranchised Englishmen. The other was that of a slave uprising. The worst case scen ario was that in which white indentures and black slaves should join forces. Since these two groups faced many of the same problems, this was a real possibility.The answer was to pursue a strategy of divide and conquer. Beginning in the 1660s, a number of increasingly oppressive slave codes were legislated. Eventually, this turned Africans into something less than human from a legal standpoint. Masters could literally beat a slave to death without legal repercussions a slave could be dismembered as a form of punishment manumission was made far more difficult. Most significantly, a 1670 law specified that African servants were slaves for life, and children born to slave women were automatically slaves as well.Next, the gentry began extending privileges to the landless working class, giving them a greater stake in Virginia society. The vote was extended to more white Protestant males than before, and the House of Burgesses which represented the subvert classes was granted more powe r. Further action was taken to make western lands available to settlement. The result was that these token privileges reinforced an idea among poor and working class whites that they were somehow better than the Africans. The irony lies in the fact that if Africans had never been imported to Virginia, indentured white servitude would certainly have become institutionalized. The Virginia colony and perhaps all of America may very well have become the feudal society wished for by todays trans-national corporate capitalists and their neo-conservative lap dogs in the occurrent U.S. Administration and Congress.Works CitedFoner, Eric. Give Me Liberty An American History. New York W.W. Norton, 2006.Zinn, Howard. A Peoples History of The United States (3rd ed.) New York HarperCollins, 2003.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Digital Classroom

I was really wondering what kindle I learn position when I came here. Because before I couldnt go to course about English . I havent got an idea. After that weve incurn two different classroom. ceremonious and digital classroom. World is changing everyday. Person finds new technologies idea for everything. And Im absolutely agree this statement what people learning English argon up to(p) to make greater progress when using a variety of learning technologies within the classroom. I really like digital classroom. There argon dozens of advantages. In my opinion IWB is incredible .It looks like game and everybody like to play game. All word use to internet and computer because of this people can be to more interested with lesson. Some times we can involve to speak with our friends and we can use to Synchron Eyes. Im feeling comfortable to digital classroom. Pegasus is reformatory for me. I can do some mistakes when I bring out by handed and after that maybe I cant see my mistake s. only if I use to Pegasus I can see all my mistakes end of the exam or preparedness and maybe I can parry my home build exactly if I look for in the Pegasus I can see my homework.I used to conventional classroom for 23 years. Sometimes computers cant work . there can be some digital problems. What can I do this time. I can use my book. Were really elder friends with my book. If I am in classroom I want to see my book and I want to use my pencil. This is really important for me. I want to write some notes on the book. As a result two different classroom has a good speciality. I feel confused but truly digital class is better than conventional class.Digital ClassroomI was really wondering what can I learn English when I came here. Because before I couldnt go to course about English . I havent got an idea. After that weve seen two different classroom. Conventional and digital classroom. World is changing everyday. Person finds new technologies idea for everything. And Im absolu tely agree this statement what people learning English are able to make greater progress when using a variety of learning technologies within the classroom. I really like digital classroom. There are lots of advantages. In my opinion IWB is incredible .It looks like game and everybody like to play game. All word use to internet and computer because of this people can be to more interested with lesson. Some times we can want to speak with our friends and we can use to Synchron Eyes. Im feeling comfortable to digital classroom. Pegasus is helpful for me. I can do some mistakes when I write by handed and after that maybe I cant see my mistakes. But if I use to Pegasus I can see all my mistakes end of the exam or homework and maybe I can forget my homework but if I look for in the Pegasus I can see my homework.I used to conventional classroom for 23 years. Sometimes computers cant work . there can be some digital problems. What can I do this time. I can use my book. Were really old frie nds with my book. If I am in classroom I want to see my book and I want to use my pencil. This is really important for me. I want to write some notes on the book. As a result two different classroom has a good speciality. I feel confused but actually digital class is better than conventional class.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

The Historical Value of Speeches in Thucydides

The historical lever of speeches in Thucydides In writing his history as a whole, it is fair to say that Thucydides has continuously been praised for his relative historical accuracy, be that due to his actual presence at events, his use of eyewitness testimony or his noted checking of facts. In style Thucydides unbroken his narrative sections rather impersonal thereby allowing the story to unfold itself.However, to then lay b atomic number 18 what stood behind the narrative, the moral possibilities, the mistakes, the fears and the motives, the device he used was the speech, a mechanism he employed with supreme mastery. Perhaps the best way to begin to answer the question in hand, we should examine the definition Thucydides himself gives us in his statement of methodology for his speeches that appears in 1. 22. 1. of his History of the Peloponnesian War. In this history I founder make use of set speeches some of which were delivered just beforehand and others during the war.I ha ve found it difficult to remember the precise words used in the speeches which I listened to myself and my various in take shapeants have experienced the same trouble so my method has been while keeping as closely as possible to the general sense of the words that were actually used, to make the speakers say what, in my opinion, was called for by each situation It is not unreasonable to construe that at face value this statement is not at all a hoop endorsement for historical accuracy.This idea is taken up by Plant who correctly states that there is a lack of correlation between the first and instant parts of the statement. He continues that it has long been debated whether the historian claimed and/or attempted to present verbatim accounts of the arguments put forward by the speakers on each occasion as best he could, or whether he felt free to modify or to invent particular arguments or even whole speeches. And the controversy has been fuelled by what has been widely regarded as the ambiguity of the second of the two parts of Thucydides famous statement of aims and methods in 1. 2. 1. The accepted ambiguity of 1. 22. 1, moreover, has provided such scholars with what they consider to be ancient evidence with which they might successfully call into question the objectivity of Thucydides as a scientific historian, and with which they might thereby persuasively promote the view of him as either an impassioned (outraged) moralist or a tendentious manipulator of his readers sympathies. * It is clear therefore, that in the speeches what we encounter is in some sense Thucydides bear voice.In terms of ultimate historical value, however, the thorny question has always been is it Thucydides view of what the speakers really meant, or his judgment of what they should have meant? To return to his initial statement for a moment, it is interesting to note that Thucydides seems to be making a virtue of the fact that he is not reporting verbatim. We must remember that in the times in which Thucydides was writing rhetoric was an everyday part of the society in which he lived and long speeches in literary whole shebang were commonplace.The contemporary readers of Thucydides were men habituated to a polite life in which public speech played an all important part. To a Greek of that age a written history of political events would have seemed strangely insipid if speech in the first person had been absent from it especially if it did not offer some mirror of those debates which were inseparably associated with the central interests and the determinative moments of political life.On a further point of contemporary style and verbal accuracy, Cole argues that the complexity, compression, and frankness of the arguments in the speeches in Thucydides mean that they cannot have been made in the form he gives us on the occasions when he claims they were made. * Whether or not we accept Coles thesis, or a modification thereof, we must passive accept the stron g influence of contemporary rhetoric on Thucydides. In any event, Thucydides Thomas F. Garritys article on Thucydides 1. 22. 1 Content and underframe in the Speeches, (autumn 1998), The American Journal of Philology *T. Cole, The Origins of Rhetoric in Ancient Greece (Baltimore, 1991) speeches are vital highpoints in his operation and not only for the structure and form of the arguments they explore. They appear at great moments of decision and turning points and their dramatic impact is useful to Thucydides as an instrument of style.We therefore may have to accept that they are more great rhetorical set pieces rather than paragons of historical accuracy However, although the exact accuracy of the words spoken in the speeches produced by Thucydides in these works cannot be verified thereby inevitably devaluing their historical value, it can be said that the style and method of the speeches and debates that Thucydides includes in his work do provide us with an almost unwitting test imony of other facts which do have great significance and value for the historian.For example the Mytilenian debate between Cleon and Diodotus shows us how decisions were made, the grounds on which they were made, and the psychology used by the persuaders. In addition, it provides us with an insight into the considerations about the behavior of an imperial power at war, its relationship with the democrats among the allies and its attention to long-run finance. So by dramatizing a conflict between two orators, Thucydides records for us the interplay of various contemporary problems concerning the exercise of power and the conduct of war.The conclusion is that the speeches are not what we should call historical reporting in the same sense as the narrative. However there is no doubt that the impact of their presence in the work is very powerful. The reader is quite carried away in the midst of these marvelous orations to a point where, not only does he feel that he has seen the Pelopo nnesian War from the inside, but he is certain that he knows exactly what the issues were and why things happened as they did.The overall conclusion, therefore, must be that we cannot quantify the exact historical value of the speeches in Thucydides work as we can never be sure of their complete verbal accuracy. However, there is no denying that the speeches may be taken as a paradigm for a better understanding of his historiographical project in general and that there is a lasting satisfaction to be obtained from reading Thucydides speeches for their own sake as a direct and vivid aesthetic experience. Bibliography Connor W. Robert, Thucydides (1984) pages 146-158, http//www. umanitiesebook. org Garrity Thomas F. , Thucydides 1. 22. 1Content and Form in the Speeches The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 119, No. 3 (Autumn 1998), pp. 361-384. JSTOR http//www. jstor. org/stable/156676 Plant Ian M. The Influence of Forensic Otatory on Thucydides Principles of Method Theh Classic Qua rterly, New Series, Vol. 49, No. 1 (1999), pp. 62-73. JSTOR http//jstor. org/stable/639489 Thucydides, History of The Peloponnesian War (1954), Trans. Rex Warner, Penguin Classics (London)

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Professional Nursing Mission Statement Essay

This Professional confine Mission argonament describes the paidism a nurse necessitate to perform excellent headache in the health environment. The Mission also demonstrates different aspects of nursing and what nurses are to look forward to now and into the future.A. Functional Differences control panel of Nursing has an authoritive role in nursing. They are made up of professionals that make up rules so the nurse is aware of what is spareed or not allowed in their area of practice. Theses rules may differ from state to state but primarily, their focus is to protect the public from people who practice nursing without the appropriate qualifications. State Board of Nursing has the authority to rescind and reissue licenses. Board of Nursing also decides on penalizing action against a nurse who has a complaint or lawsuit against them (Villaceran, 2007). The State of Hawaii board of nursing purpose generally claims just the same. It claims that anyone posing as a nurse must show proof in fellowship to safeguard life and health (Hawaii Revised Statute Chapter 457 Nurses, 2013).A professional nurses organization, or PNO, such as the American Nurses Association for example, was generated to direct a authorise nurse on how to present him or her self in an ethical manner. Although it is not law, it should be practice as a guide to uphold the integrity of the nurse (American Nurses Association, 2001). PNO defines the nurse Code of Ethics and the Scope of Practice. They also explains what a nurse is and promote professionalism. PNO may be involved with research to improve the lineament of longanimous care as well as be apart of the political decision-making to endorse them (Sauls, 2013).B. Nursing Code ExampleA nursing com identifye of morals is a nigh place to jumpstart with to guide any nurse to become a great healthcare provider. American Nurses Association, also known as ANA, Code of Ethics gives ideas on how one may need to envision themselves as a evaluateed nurse with values. It identifies how a nurse may want to carry themselves in the workplace with quality and good integrity. ANA provision 1 seems to define what a nurse is all about. It describes the nurse as student nurses were taught to be in nursing school. Practicinghuman dignity keeps nurses in good standing with the Gallup polls. In 2008, Gallup polls showed that 84% of the people see nurses as the most ethical. This is the highest amongst some other occupations (Cherry, 2011). Generating a consanguinity with the patient is inevitable. Theres no way a nurse can do their job without first establishing a relationship with the patient. The question is, will a nurse generate a good relationship as oppose to a bad one? To give good care, the nurse and the patient is in need to be on the same rogue where the patient is made to feel as they are the one in charge of their care.So, if a patient does not feel like getting up to work with natural therapy the nurse should grant their wishes. Nurses should not force patients to do things the patient does not want to do. The nurse should first encourage the patient that it is all important(predicate) to take their daily medications or encourage them to get up for physical therapy, for example. If they continue to refuse, the patient should have the sense of control of their care by not feeling threatened for not wanting to take their medication or getting up for physical therapy. But, allowing the patient to set a plan for their day may have the patient more(prenominal) cooperative and less stressed. ANA code of ethics provision 5 is a code that states the nurse owes the same duties as others, including the responsibility to preserve integrity and safety, and maintain competence, and to continue personal and professional growth. (American Nurses Association, 2001).Moral self-respect is required to carry out this code not only to ones self but to the patient as well. It is a good start to establish t rust. Moral respect should also be practice to the individuals in the interdisciplinary team involved. Moral self-respect is key to keep self-esteem and respect to others. It keeps the feeling of unity in a patients care. Having a good rapport with the interdisciplinary team will keep the all on the same page as far as patient care. With the every changing healthcare systems and updated research, nurses are in constant need to keep up for the sake of safekeeping the patient up to date with healthcare technology (Amcee, 2003). This requires ongoing classes of not only updated technology but with competency as well. If the interdisciplinary team and peers are aware of this, this will boost trust and respect for the educated nurse.C. Professional traitsThe ANA Code of Ethics discusses many professional traits. Although all are very important and continuously need to be practiced, the professional trait of Collaboration is essential for the interdisciplinary team to practice as well (Am erican Nurses Association, 2001). Collaboration is the job definition of any disciplinary team. It is valuable for all individuals to be apart of the care of the patient. Each member of the team gives valuable information from his or her expertise resulting in a holistic plan of care. Another professional trait the nurse to advocate to the interdisciplinary team is to respect the patients right to self-determination while admitted in their care. Every patient needs to be apart of their care and should be able to claim what they want or do not want in their plan of care (American Nurses Association, 2001). This would give the patient a sense of control in their care and their life. Delegation is the third professional trait that is essential to the interdisciplinary team in order to give appropriate and timely care to the patient (American Nurses Association, 2001).The interdisciplinary team all has his or her own unique lastingness that will allow the patient to receive individual care they are requiring. Patients put their lives into the hands of the physician everyday. They trust that they will be taken care of as if they were the only patients the physician possesses. The nurses and staff are an extension of the physician. Everyone taking care of patients has an obligation to continue that integrity the patient has already upheld in the physician. This is wherefore provision 5 in the Code of Ethics should be practiced. This fourth professional trait allows the patient the feeling of respect and dignity. This sense will allow them to have faith in the nursing team and the healthcare system that they will have the best care possible (American Nurses Association, 2001).D. Recommended resource jean Watson effected in 1978 the Theory of Human Caring. Watson introduces the 10 carative (or caring) factors that support her theory. They are1. The formation of humanistic-altruistic system of values2. The instillation of faith-hope3. The cultivation of sensitivity to ones self and to others4. Thedevelopment of a helping-trusting relationship5. The promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings6. The systematic use of the scientific problem-solving method of decision making7. The promotion of social teaching-learning8. The provision for a supportive, protective, and (or) corrective mental, physical, sociocultural and spiritual environment9. Assistance with the gratification of human needs10. The allowance of existential-phenomenological forces(Nursing Theories, 2012).D1. Theory in Professional PracticesJean Watsons Theory of Human Caring is essential in patient care. Being in the hospital, away from family and literally laying your life in the hands of a stranger cannot be easy. Human caring and showing compassion and empathy can possibly decrease stress and allow patients to focus on mend and be compliant with their care. If patients feel good about their care theyll be more involved with their care. Using the environment of a Skilled Nursing Facility, as an example, where the healing process may take longer than expected, following the 10 caratives in the Theory of Human Caring will not only show quality care but give the patient a pleasant hospital experience for the remainder of their stayE. ContributionsLillian Wald was known for her works in the public health nursing. She believed that the caring for the patient should start before they end up in the clinic. She encouraged the importance of disease prevention and taught health education. She provided well-baby care and treated nonaged illness in her main clinic named Henry Street Settlement House (Cherry, 2011). Lillian Wald emphasized the significance of prevention. A practice that continues to be reiterated everywhere. As seen in commercials or billboards or even on the radio, prevention is key to a long, healthy lifestyle. When patients leave the hospital, discharge education is vital to making sure they are candid to care for t hemselves and, hopefully, bring down the numbers of hospital visits.F. ScenarioOne principle I safeguarded for a patient was respect for autonomy.Sometimes patients are admitted into the hospital for something as simple as daily intravenous antibiotics. They are independent with all of their activities of daily living. Sometimes these patients are intertwined with other patients in shared rooms. These independent patients, because of their alertness, should be able to be in a private room. These patients are not only of low acuity, but these patients will be happier not being well-nigh sicker patients. Happier patients means good rating for us.On the other hand, there are times when patients are admitted as stable yet confused. The second principle I safeguarded for a patent was non-maleficence. Because these patients are not in control of their thoughts or actions they are required to be supervised more closely than others. Patients who are at risk of getting hurt by getting out of bed without assistance can cause nurses to be of concerned. These patients can easily be put in a wheelchair and hang out with the nurses at the nurses station for continuous supervision from, not only of the team nurse but, all staff. This would allow more eyes on the patient bringing down the risks of injury. This will also prevent more invasive means like using physical or chemical restraints.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Case Study Irs and Datawarehousing

Interactive Session Organizations The Internal R so farue Service Uncovers Tax Fraud with a Data Warehouse show window Study Questions 1. Why was it so difficult for the IRS to analyze the taxpayer information it had collected? Initi completelyy, IRS info were stored in legacy systems designed to process tax return forms expeditiously and organized in many different formats, including hierarchical mainframe databases, Oracle relational databases, and non-database prone files.The data in the hoaryer style hierarchical databases and flat files were nearly impossible to query and analyze and could not easily be combined with the relational data. 2. What kind of challenges did the IRS encounter when implementing its CDW? What management, organization, and technology issues had to be addressed? The challenges the IRS encountered when it utilise its CDW include Management Convincing the organization to undergo a sweeping upgrade like a data warehouse implementation was not easy, sinc e political relation agencies are normally risk-adverse and resist changes.Data warehouses train extensive effort to keep up-to-date. Organization The structure of data wasnt consistent because of tax law changes by means of the years. This made integration of the data a complicated process. The sheer amount of data that the CDW was slated to manage was far more than anything the IRS had previously handled. Data warehouses tend to require extensive amounts of money to keep up-to-date. Technology The CDW has grown in capacity from three terabytes at its creation in the late 1990s to approximately one hundred fifty terabytes of data.The most important feature of the data warehouse was that it be sufficiently large to accommodate multiple terabytes of data, but also accessible enough to sanction queries of its data using many different tools. The components that the IRS selected allowed CDW to do that. Conversion of the legacy data to the new system was not a uniform process. 3. H ow did the CDW improve determination making and operations at the IRS? Are there benefits to taxpayers? The CDW enables highly flexible queries against one of the largest databases in the world.IRS researchers can now search and analyze hundreds of millions or even billions of records at one time using a centralized source of accurate and consistent data instead of having to reconcile information from multiple contrary sources. The CDW allows the agency to recoup many billions of dollars in tax revenue that was lost under the old system. In 2006 the IRS collected $59. 2 billion in excess revenue via 1. 4 million audits of taxpayers questioned for underreporting taxes. Using the data warehouse, analysts are able to determine patterns in groups of people most likely to cheat on their taxes.The data warehouse reduced the time it takes to trace mistakes in claims and analyze data from six to eight months to only a few hours. The CDW is more secure than the old legacy system storage ta pes, thereby better protecting taxpayer data. 4. Do you think data warehouses could be useful in other areas of the federal vault of heaven? Which ones? Why or why not? Other federal agencies that might find data warehouses useful include Department of Defense maintain all personnel data from all four branches of the military including active duty, Guard, Reserve, and retired people.During times of war or national emergencies the data warehouse could supply information on people most qualified and available to respond to the emergency. All kinds of information and analyses could be performed if the data were consistent and complete. Federal Trade Commission could combine data on consumer-related activities into one data warehouse that would be available to all branches of government and private organizations. Data could help analyze economic situations and factors so that businesses and governments could pick out faster and better decisions.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Benefits of Co-Curricular Activities Essay

Everyone knows about co-curricular. What some of us dont know about political program is that course of instruction is as a body of knowledge to be transmitted, it is as well as an attempt to earn certain ends in students product, plus it is as a process and it is as praxis(Mark K. Smith 1996, 2000). It gave many benefits to a wide range of students and it may help them in many ways. It is similarly a part of statement where it is held outdoors or indoors. Co-curricular activities ar optional and pursued outside the classroom to enrich the course syllabi. They atomic number 18 meant to complement and not interfere with the studies. Some say that it is does intervene with studies but there are many researches which state the benefits of co-curricular activities. This includes improving our health, increasing self-importance motivation and build skills among students. Firstly, co-curricular activities heap advance our health mentally, psychologically, and emotionally.It is salutary for our mental health because if we do exercise regularly, it regulates blood to the judgement. Furthermore, it cigarette encourage the body to generate and as well for our heart to pump the blood actively, not only to the tie in organs but especially the chief. The brain needs more energy when focusing on a specific task. Additional activities stimulate run away for both sides of the brains. Each side of the brain is responsible for processing different types of thoughts. Students in general are released to logical thinking during their studies, which is processed by the left side of the brain. By doing outdoor activities, the brain will be stimulated to creative thinking, which is processed by the right side of the brain (Zimmer C., 2005). muscular body leads to a healthy surroundings. The students will be more comfortable functional in a clean, fresh and hygienic environment, and students will take it to the state of mind subconsciously. A healthy physique lead s to high endurance.A well known fact is that muscle is built with vigorous activities. These activities can build the possible for the body to sustain longer periods of work and the end result is higher endurance. It can lead to a healthier mind. For example, outdoor activities expose the mind to a different environment. In other words, it may improve the state of mind to multiple scenarios and withal broaden the scope of thinking because various activities may expose mind. As a result, it can help them to prevent a dull state of thinking. Exercise teaches students to transmission line emotions into productive activities. With stressful conditions and pressure arising from studies, students need a healthy way of discharging these emotions. For example problems establishmentd by students such as in studies, it can be overcome by the activities that they wee experienced and versed from curriculum. More over, emotionally it may help students releasing their tension by making new friends.They also can share their problems, nab how to overcome it, learn how to affableize and learn to be more confident. Activities that they get together do not serve as a temporary distraction for emotional problems. Conversely, it gives a centre solution for emotional problems because curriculum can help divert a student from this harmful state. Secondly, it can help to raise self motivation, such as self expression, self authority and self esteem. ego expression is a kind of motivation that can encourage students to express their thoughts. Students are in an environment to openly convey their opinion generally. Co-curricular activities also encourage students to speak up and contribute to an existing desire or topic. Students can revise, rethink and add to an existing subject on hand.It also creates self confidence among students because it can teach students to differentiate amid right or wrong. In 2004, it was found that the participation of students in co curri cular activities was only 56 per cent of secondary schools students involved in uniformed units. (Chok Suat Ling, 2007).So, in these cases, to build confidence about benefits of co-curricular among students is really important. It is because some situations may put the students in the wrong cultivation about co- curricular activities but when they are already participate they will incur the opportunity to learn from these mistakes. Otherwise, self confidence can give the students the opportunity to have faith in others. Sometimes responsibility is not delegated to the student, and in these cases the student must trust their colleagues. Besides, students will be motivated by having self esteem in their life. Self esteem can teach students to believe in themselves. Students will have confidence in their own choices especially when people dont trust them. It also can teach students not to fear or to be de-motivated by rejection.Students will almost always face rejection, though they must not be provoked in these circumstances. Self honour teaches students to fully respect their decision and thoughts. When a student shows respect for choices they have made, others around them in turn will also learn to respect them. It also encourage students not be second judging their own decisions. just about students face the dilemma of second judging their choices, especially when the odds are against them. By doing co curriculum activities, students are encouraged to have faith in the choices they make. Thirdly, it can build the skills such as social skills, leading skills, and teamwork skills. In social skills, it gives students the opportunity to socialize with other peoples. For example, in outdoor activities, students are open(a) to a larger crowd.Here they can mingle with their peers. Besides, it teaches students the basics of communication skills. Communication skills can teach student about networking and building contacts. Students may piece people out of thei r circle of friends and learn to meet new people. Students are given the chance to lead groups. When groups are formed, a student may be given the chance to take responsibility as a leader. This is usually seen in group related activities. Students will learn how to take responsibility for their groups choices .When leading such groups, students learned to be liable for the groups actions, whether the outcome is good or bad. It can also teach students how to befriend with one another when they are in a group. It is important for the members to get along and discover that working together is the key to success.For example, they will get a good presentation if they work with each other and also give their own opinions while they have discussion. Finally, curricular activities may teach students how to compromise between ideas and suggestions. Sometimes a students contribution or idea may clash with a team members. Students must learn to give and take mistakes between group members. T hese skills may clear a student practically in future especially when they work. In conclusion, co-curricular activities have been proven to have much positive benefits for students in various aspects. Students not only gain benefits through these activities, but also amplify their self enthusiasm. Furthermore, it may also increase their range of lifelong skills, hence it is a decided must in a students life.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Effects of Bio fuels on the Environment Essay

Bio give the sack is a type of fuel that is made out of both living or lifeless biological material and specifically, the plants as per the definition given over by Shepardson, (2009). According to Shepardson, most bio fuels argon in the form of esters, alcohols among others and a good example of this type of fuel is bio neutral spirits and bio diesel. This fuel is by and large apply in vehicles and for it to be considered as a bio fuel concord to Connor Steve (2008), it must consist of most 80% of renewable materials.The production of this kind of fuel has been said to be impacting prohibitly on the surround however though this is the case, the benefits of bio fuels cannot be dismissed altogether. As a result of this disagreement, a lot of discussions hand over been held over this issue something that has polarized the society between those who argue that it does not impact shunly on the surround and those that maintain that it does. This becomes the basis of this essay wh ere the paper will take a stand and support the claims that indeed bio fuels impact blackballly on the surround.According to Mongobay. com (2008), there argon various types of bio fuels and one of these is E10 which over meter has been greatly improved in terms of quality in that initially it contained about 90 sh ar of petroleum and 10 percent of ethanol but of late it is called E100 because it is almost made up of ethanol alone and about 4 percent of water. The invention of this type of fuel according to Shepardson (2009) is something that has greatly revolutionised the convey industry.These fuels have particularly been cited as one of the best ways to reduce green house fluff emissions contrary it is the case with other types of fuel especially fossil fuels. Even though they are praised for this, the negative call upmental consequences they have are innumerable. One of these effects according to a scientific study that was conducted in 2008 contradicts the alleged potenti al of this fuel to reduce greenhouse gases such as coke dioxide among others this is as per the Mongobay. com (2008). As per this study, (2008) argues that emergence crops with an aim of producing bio fuel leads to an increase in the numerate of atomic number 6 dioxide in the atmosphere. This claim according to the Green Website. co. uk is given weight by reports that were published in a science journal cognize as Journal Science that destineed that plants that are specifically fetchn for the production of this fuel produce more than carbon dioxide than what these plants can indwellingly absorb. According to these scientists Mongobay (2008), it would take decades to reverse the trend or to balance what they termed as carbon debt.Or in other words the amount of oxygen released to the atmosphere in the get over of growing these crops and is yet to be absorbed. The US and the European Union have particularly been on the mind in propagating the idea for the produ ction of biomass as the surest way of controlling global warming (Shepardson, 2009). According to Shepardson this has squeeze researchers from all over the world who aims at pdecompositionecting the environment to conduct researches in their bid to construe better how this would impact on the environment.One of the researches that were conducted as per the report compiled by Connor, (2008) shown that clearing Amazons forested visit to grow soybeans would create a carbon debt that would take 319 years to be restored not mentioning the magnitude in which forests and bushes would be destroyed to grow these crops Production of biomass is labour intensive and requires a bad land according to Sawahei (2009), what this means is that a lot of bushes and forests are cleared to produce raw materials for bio fuel thereby leaving the ground with no take thereby increasing the possibility of soil corrosion taking place.To Sawahei, the world requires large tracts of land for it to feed its population now amounting over six billions. By growing biomass as an alternative source of fuel would require more land that what is needed for growing crops as per the Action for Global Health (2008) and eventually there will be no natural vegetations as all land will either have been cultivated for crop production or biomass production or both. According to the Action for Global Health (2008), this greatly destroys the environment considering that vegetation cover protects soil erosion and again it is a habitat to millions of animal species (Sawahei, 2009).Apart from this, the risk of polluting water sources with phosphates and nitrates from fertilizers that are applied to boost crop production are very high (Biofuel, 2003). Water is in like manner begrime by chemicals that are used in the production of biomass such as pesticides sprayed to get rid of pests that beset and destroy these plants. These chemicals not only pollute water but they also kill micro organisms present in the soil that in one way or the other keep the eco body work (Action for Global Health.2008). Rogercopenh (2008) contends that by the United States embarking on campaigns to push for the use of bio fuels ability mislead numerous 3rd world countries into substituting land meant for growing food crops for biomass production because of the money this business would bring. According to Rogercopenh (2008) this might in turn lead to the encroachment of forests and other natural habitats which are firm to millions of wild animals.It should also not be forgotten that when this green matter is harvested, there are chances that some will rot thereby producing a very bad smell and apart from rotting, some of these plants produce bad olfactory property naturally and thus they are an environmental hazard in that they pollute the air. As per the evidence given by Franke and Reinherdt (1998), Bio fuel also kills biodiversity in terms of the variety of plants growing in a field. For biomass to be produced in large quantity, enough to keep the world going, then its production must be professionally done.What this means according to Franke and Reinherdt (1998) is that a social unit field is filled with only one type of plants starring(p) to what is known as monoculture and by doing this, other types of plants are not given a chance to grow something that indirectly leads to their extinction (Franke and Reinherdt, 1998). In doing this according to Randooke (2009), animal are also not spared in that disforestation must take place, grasslands must be cleared and wetlands are destroyed.The truth is that these areas are habitat to many species of animals and thus what this means is that these species will be killed while others are displaced. Trees naturally preserve water catchments areas and thus when land is prepared for the cultivation these reserves are destroyed (Randooke, 2009). According to the Action for Global Health, (2008) the whole bio fuel production process requires a lot of energy and basically the type of energy that is used is fossil fuel.The argument raised by the Action for Global Health (2008) is that the amount of carbon that is emitted by burning bio fuels is absorbed by crops that are grown purposely for bio fuels production but the problem is that the amount of carbon that is emitted during their production considering that carbon emitted during planting, spraying, treating and harvesting season where machines that uses fossil fuels is not cleared from the air.This claim is support by Sawahei, (2009) who argues that even after these crops are harvested, more carbon is emitted to the atmosphere in that coal or other forms of fossil fuels such as gas are used to heat the raw materials that are used in the production of bio fuels. Though bio fuels are heavily criticised in that they cause serious negative environmental ramifications according to Connor (2008), there are other various researches that have been done which prove ot herwise.Researches show that production of other forms of fuel such as fossil fuel leads to the release of more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than it is the case with bio fuels (Science for environmental policy, 2008). One research that strongly supports this claim is the one that was done in the United Kingdom. According to the same source, what they call first generation process Life Cycle Analysis, carbon dioxide emissions are reduced by over sixty percent unlike other forms. As per Biofuels (2003), the befriend generation process carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced by over 80 percent. more often than not according to this report, carbon dioxide emissions can be saved by an average of about 50 to 60 percent. Another advantage of using this kind of fuel according to the Greencar website (2009) is that bio fuel does not contain sulfur which is one of the main components that causes acid rains. Also considering that it is made by bio degradable materials, its chances of des troying the soil are low unlike other fuels such as fossil fuels which contaminate water sources and destroy soil when they leak into them (Science for environmental policy, 2008).In consideration of the massive evidence that is provided here above, one is justified to say that biofuels are an environmental hazard. There are a lot of researches that have been done by different researchers and most of them organise to the fact that the production of bio fuels produces many effects that in one way or the other destroys the eco system for example, fertilizers that are applied on crops meant to produce biomass releases phosphates and nitrates thereby destroying soil and water.Another way through which biofuels destroys the environment is that despite the fact that a lot of forests and bushes have already been cleared for crop production, more land is snow needed for biomass production something that leads to soil erosion due clearance of bushes and the destruction of habitats that are home to many species. This indirectly leads to the extinction of these species whether plant or animals.Bibliography Action for Global Health. 2008. New study demonstrates bio fuels negative impact on poverty, hunger and environment.Available at http//docs. google. com/gview? a=v&q=cacheelry2KJk0UgJec. europa. eu/environ ment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/1si4. pdf+biofuels+,+negative+impacts+,e nvironment&hl=en&gl=ke Biofuel, 2003. Bio diesel Impacts on the environment. http//www. biofuelus. com/biofuel/biodiesel/biodiesel-impact-on-the- environment. php Connor Steve, 2008. Biofuels make climate alternate worse, Scientific Study concludes. Available at http//www. independent. co. uk/environment/climate-change/biofuels- make-climate-change-worse-scientific-study-concludes-779811. html

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Nowadays corporate governance

Nowadays incorporated nerve is seen as the key of attracting investors. working capital flow seems directed towards the companies, which practice fair and transp atomic number 18nt ways of governing their organizations. With the changing global backing scenario the need of understanding and effective practice of fair and technologically advance corporate governance has as well as increased. In my speech I will first explain the notion of Corporate Governance.ICAEW (2002) has explained corporate governance in a very effective and comprehensive manner as Corporate governance is commonly referred to as a system by which organizations are directed and controlled. It is the process by which company objectives are established, achieved and admonishered. Corporate governance is concerned with the relationships and responsibilities between the board, management, shareholders and other relevant s snapholders within a legal and regulatory framework.Sir Adrian Cadbury (1992) defined co rporate governance as the whole system of controls, both financial and otherwise, by which a company is directed and controlled.There are no hard and fast rules for corporate governance, which can be prescribed for all the countries. These rules can be different for different countries according to their needs and cultural settings. fit to ICAEW (2002) with all the contrasts present in the rules and regulations of different countries emphasis is given to generic corporate governance principles of responsibility, accountability, hydrofoil and fairness.Responsibility of directors who approve the strategic direction of the organization within a framework of prudent controls and who employ, monitor and reward management.Accountability of the board to shareholders who have the right to receive information on the financial stewardship of their enthronization and exercise power to reward or remove the directors entrusted to run the company.Transparency of clear information with which s ignificant analysis of a company and its actions can be made. The disclosure of financial and operational information and interior(a) processes of management oversight and control enable outsiders to understand the organization.Fairness that all shareholders are treated as and have the opportunity for redress for violation of their rights. According to Meigs et al. (1999) this information meets the needs of users of the information-investors. Creditors, managers, and so on-and support legion(predicate) kinds of financial decision performance evaluation and capital allocation, among others. (P.07) piles resolutely focus on maximizing wampum and a legal obligation to act in the best interests of their shareholders. By and greathearted, this excludes acting ethically or socially responsibly(spanker and Tombs, 1999).(Shah, 2002) states that some Trans-national corporations make more in sales than the GDPs (Gross Domestic Product) of many countries. In fact, of the 100 hundred wealt hiest bodies, 51 percent are owned by corporations. While this can be seen as a success story from some viewpoints, others suggest that these and other large corporations are generally unaccountable for the many social and environmental problems that they leave in their wake, and that their size means that their effects are considerable.It is not that every single corporation is inherently bad or greedy, but commonly, the very large, transnational corporations who naturally have vested interests in international development and trade policies (like any group) are able to position enormous financial resources in an attempt to get favorable outcomes. The political power that is therefore held by such a small number of people encounters the planet significantly. As a result a few of these corporations make up some of the most(prenominal) influential sources of political and economic power.Naturally, with such charm it is not clear who the regulator is. And as Clarksons (1999) earl ier quote suggests money and power, in corporate activity, are paired. And where profit supersedes safety and power supersedes regulation there stands the conflict of interests, for the victims of corporate crime. These are for the most part neither wealthy nor powerful although, when they are liability is certainly applied copiously.For example in the case of Enron the former chief accounting turnedicer, Richard Causey was indicted on charges of fraud, conspiracy, insider trading, lying to auditors and money laundering for allegedly clear-sighted about or participating in a series of schemes to fool investors into believing Enron was financially sizeable ( The victims in this case were the investors who were identifiable and influential.Violations, which impact on financial systems, are subject to more scrupulous legislative administration, compared with social infringements (snider 1991 cited in Slapper and Tombs 199989). Increased attention to corporate crime wou ld mean relating to large companies as criminals (Slapper and Tombs, 1999). An issue, (Sullivan, 1995 cited in Clarkson, 1998) renders impossible on the basis that crimes can only be committed by human, moral agents.Media attention will focus on financial aspects of corporate crime due to its impact on a political scale and the sensational-factor that is the respectable figures committing crime as well a the touch/knowledge that scandal sells. Scandal, is common reference for this financial aspect but noting the influence of language Slapper and Tombs (1999) note that this sets a scale for perceptions, rendering it uncommon/unusual. Another scale, which has been set in the last few decades, is the increasing complains of the least risk disclosure by the companies in their annual reports and financial statements. This is also go with by the misuse of the accounting techniques by the executive officers and managers of the corporations. As in case of Enron the technique of off balanc e sheet reporting was used in negative manner.Investors are often aware of the risks they take and in itself, off-balance-sheet financing is no vice. Companies can use it in perfectly legitimate ways that adopt little risk to shareholders. The trouble is that while more companies are relying on off-balance-sheet methods to finance their operations, investors are usually unaware that a company with a clean balance sheet may be irritated with debt until it is too late. (Morgenson, 2001)A change is required in the regulations. The accounting firm should not perform the consulting and auditing go both. The Companies should be required by the Government to increase their degrees of disclosure. The top-level management should be held more responsible by tightening up the regulations. They should also be held responsible in case of any frauds and regulatory violations of their subordinates. This in turn will give rise to the sense of responsibility in the people related at all levels. (Hanson, 2002)ReferencesCadbury Sir Adrian, (1992). Report of the Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance, Gee & Co Ltd., UKClarkson, Max (Editor), The Corporation and Its Stakeholders Classic and Contemporary Readings, University of Toronto Press, 1998.ICAEW, (2002). What is Corporate Governance? Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, Retrieved 30/10/2007 from Hanson, K., (2002). Lessons from the Enron Scandal, oppugn about Enron by Atsushi Nakayama, a reporter for the Japanese newspaper Nikkei, March 5, 2002, Retrieved 30/10/2007 from http// ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/enronlessons.htmlICAEW, (2002). Corporate governance developments in the UK, Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, Retrieved 30/10/2007 from Meigs, Robert F., Williams, Jan, R., Haka, Susan F. & Bettner, Mark S., (1999). accounting system The Basis for Business Decisions, Eleventh Edition, Irwin Mc Graw-Hill, p. 07Moregenson, G., (2001 ). Are New Woes Lurking in Financial Nether arena? The Associated Press, December 23, 2001, Retrieved 30/10/2007 from http// foliate/articles/isthisdebt.htmSlapper, G., & Tombs, S., Longman, (1999). Getting Away with Murder, Corporate Crime, Reviewed by Chris Moore, Issue 47, May 2000Shah, A., (2002). Corporations and the Environment, Page Last Updated Saturday, May 25, 2002, Retrieved 30/10/2007 from

Friday, May 17, 2019

Course Outline – General Principles of Management

WOMENS UNIVERSITY IN AFRICA Addressing gender disparity and fostering equity in University Education FACULTY OF focus AND ENTREPRENEURIAL STUDIES & I. T. BSc MANAGEMENT AND ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (BM114) Course Outline for superior general oversight Principles (BM114) Preamble A study of the customary Management principles that seeks to equip students with the general management and managerial skills that will prepare them to be effective managers and entrepreneurs who idler quickly adopt to new management situations. Aims To equip students with modern general management principles.Objectives of the Course 1. To modify students to understand and appreciate the nature and scope of management. Course Content Management and Managers What is management? Team construction Managerial functions Types of managers Managers roles and skills Challenges for management in a Global Environment 2. 0 The growth of Management Theory Scientific Management Theory Administrat ive Management Theory Behavioural Management Theory Management Science Theory Organisational Environment Theory Total Quality Management championship Process Reengineering 3. 0 The Environment of Management Theory . 1 The Organisational Environment Task environment General environment Managing the organisational environment 3. 2 The Global Environment The changing global environment The global chore environment The global general environment The collapse of time and distance You and International Management wideness of understanding Cultural Differences 4. 0 Strategic Planning The manager as a planner strategist The planning process Determining the organisations mission and goals Formulation of scheme Planning and implementing strategy M. Porters Five forces model . 0 Organising Designing organisational structure Grouping tasks into jobs job design, radical jobs into functions Strategic alliances and network structure. Organisational control and culture ( output, behavioural and organisational culture and clan control system) Strategic adult male Resources Management Groups and group dynamics 6. 0 Leading Nature of leadership Trait and behaviour models of leadership Gender in Leadership Motivation and motivational theories Managers as a person (personality, attitude, behaviour, perception, career phylogeny and stress management) . 0 Conflict Management Organisational conflict Organisational politics Change Management 8. 0 Managing information Systems and Technologies MIS and Decision Making 9. 0 Managing Innovation, Product phylogenesis and Entrepreneurship Innovation, Technological change and competition Product Development Entrepreneurship Assessment Examination Course work (30%) Assignments (10%) Class Tests (20%) End of year Examination 70% Recommended Textbooks 1. commercial enterprise Management A contemporary Compilation, Johannesburg FVBC by Nieuwenhuizen C and Oosthuizen TFJ. 2012. 2.Introduction to Busi ness Management 6th sport Editors Cronje, Du Toit, Marcus, Motlatla. Oxford University pressure sensation 3. Management A Practical Introduction 3rd mutation by Angelo Kinicki and Brian K. Williams. McGraw Hill International 4. A Handbook to Human Resources Management Practice 10th Edition by Michael Armstrong. International Student Edition 5. Management Concepts and Practices 5th Edition by Tim Hannagan 6. Fundamentals of Management Essential Concepts and Application 6th Edition Pearson Productions by Stephen P Robbins, Sanghamitra Bhattacharyya, David A DeCenzo, Madhushree Nanda Agarwal. pic

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Death Penalty Mush Be Abolish in the United States

The demolition penalization moldiness be abolished in the United States. Outline I. Death penalisation essential be abolished field A. Death penalisation is the sentence of destruction for a person convicted of a bully offence, is currently habituated in 58 countries around the world, and is too legal sentence in 33states. (Harrison, Tamony P2) B. Abolished to end the observance or effect. (www. merriam-webster. com) C. catch 1. Background information of stopping point penalisation 2. Arguments amidst close penalization and pitying rights 3. Death punishment mistakes 4. G all overnment financial burden of close penalty. 5. both I Can See proofII. Background information of devastation penalty A. History of remnant penalty B. present-day(prenominal) debates on decease penalty III. Arguments between remainder penalty and sympathetic rights A. The human rights organization opposes expiration penalty be pretend of the inhumanity of this punishment 1. gracious rig hts omissions 2. Moral issue B. The last penalty deprives criminals human of rights. The devastation penalty is against incorruptitys principle of Buddhism. IV. The mistakes of the final stage penalty Death penalty ca drug abuse innocuous tidy sum later the execution. B. Unfairness of death penalty. 1. Race bias in the death penalty . Gender discrimination in the death penalty V. Government financial burden on the death penalty A. The death penalty cost argon larger Government pays for the bill of execution of death penalty VI. All I apprise see part Brun-inn subvert is a bloodless discharge it referred to the influence of death penalty. VII. Death penalty must be forbidden in the world The death penalty must be abolished in the United States. The death penalty, the sentence of death for a person convicted of a smashing offence, is currently used in 58 countries around the world, and is also legal sentence in 33states. Harrison, Tamony. P. 2)One hundred and thirty nine countries in the world have abolished the death penalty below their systems of law. Clearly, the majority of the world already on a lower floorstands that the death penalty must be abolished. This paper will climb up the necessity of abolishing the death penalty. For the purpose of this paper, death penalty is defined in accordance with Harrison and Tamony. Abolish is defined as the end to the observance or effect of something (www. merriam-webster. com).Three main arguments will be put preliminary the fact that the death penalty violates human rights, un-reversible actus reuss have been and can be made in designate the death penalty, and finally that it is a financial burden on the governments who allay adhere to it. A literary proof based on the novelAll I Can Seewill also be put forth to strengthen the case against the death penalty. In the seventeenth century, the death penalty was the major punishment to sentence criminals who committed cap crimes. In seventeen cent ury, England government was authorized to give ear criminals in reality as a major punishment.However, the truth is the death penalty was not l peerless(prenominal) used for the person who broke the law, it was also used to eliminate political opp unmatchednts. In Europe, before the novel prison system completed, the death penalty was used to sentence general criminals. During the time of Henry VIII, over 72,000 populate atomic number 18 estimated to have been kill. During the year 1820 in Britain, much or less 160 crimes were punished by death, including crimes such(prenominal) as shoplifting, petty theft, stealing cattle, or cutting down trees in public place. ( Bedau.Hugo Adam, 3) Since World war II, the world set off a wave of abolishing the death penalty. According to information published by Amnesty International, 97 countries had abolished peachy punishment altogether, 8 had d matchless so for all offences except under special circumstances, and 36 had not used it for at least 10 years or were under a moratorium. The other 57 retained the death penalty in active use. (Amnesty International, 10 June 2008. ) However, death penalty was al guidances not use in heinous crimes. (See Table 1, Bedau.Hugo Adam, 7) Table 1 slap-up crime in the united states, by execution and outlet of legal power, 1965 Type of offense number of jurisdiction Executions carried out between 1930 and 1965 Capitally punishable homicide 44 Yes Murder 40 Yes Other homicide 20 Yes kidnapping 34 Yes Treason 21 No Rape 19 Yes Carnal knowledge 15 No gird robbery 10 Yes Perjury in a capital case 10 No bomb 7 No Assault by a life-term prisoner 5 Yes Burglary 4 Yes Arson 4 No Train wrecking 2 No Train robbery 2 No Espionage 2 Yes Bank robbery 2 YesSabotage 1 Yes Desertion in wartime 1 Yes Other 14 No *source Bedau 19829 From the table, it is clear that some non-homicide crimes still can be sentence to dead, such as assault by a life-term prisoner or bank robbery. On the contrar y, other wicked crimes argon not to be used in the death penalty field, such as barrage fire and arson. In 1972, at the time of Supreme Courts Furman, the majority of public tends to agree with the death penalty. The major reason for support of the death penalty was the serious violent offenders need to be executed in the interest of public safety.However, according to a Gallup poll, supporter for the death penalty dropped from 76 to 53, public started to against the death penalty. Since then, the world has the trend toward of abolishing the death penalty. The right to life is the most basic right for human beings. The International Covenant on civilized and Political Rights1 (ICCPR) prohibits the use of torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment to deprived criminal liberty, which is referred to the death penalty. (Mukherjee Amrita, 2) In the past, hanging was the common system of capital punishment.Other systems including, crucifixion, d hagglening, beating and burning. Now, even lethal injection is the capital punishment, simply prisoners may have experient torturous pain during their executions. In the United States, New Jersey is the only states that allows public to watch the hale process. In the thirty-six states, the same three-drug sequence for lethal injections sodium thiopental to render the condemned inmate unconscious(p) pancuronium bromide to paralyze the condemned inmates voluntary muscles and potassium chloride to rapidly induce cardiac suffer and cause death. (Fellner, J and Tofte, 23) However, according to Hyman Rights Watch research, this three-sequence puts prisoners at a high risk situation if the drugs does not affect. Yet to change the drugs sequence, government still chooses the old method by follow the policy. muchover, inmates placed and unaccustomed circumstances (death penalty diminishes the humanity of anyone it touches. ) and death row inmates will cause criminals clean-living illness and amiable disabilities. Similarly, the European Convention on Human (ECHR) also claims that no one shall be subjected to torture or other inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment. (Mukherjee Amrita, 5) Moreover, unusual circumstances and mental pressure may lead to innocent people committed made-up crime. Moreover, the state of Michigan was the one of the earliest governments in the world to abolish the death penalty in 1846. But still, thither is a hot debate about if law says kill people is a crime, simply government still using the death penalty to sentence criminals, it is also seen as a broken law behavior. The death penalty is a serious moral error. The two points approach to the death penalty morality are consequentialist and deontological.The consequentialist theory believes that the death penalty accord with the human moral principles because it prevent potential score. Sometimes, the government uses combine welfare as an excuse to using the death penalty. The welfar e is using death penalty to deter potential criminals in order to achieve the purpose for reducing crime. At the same time, no one can guarantee that government follows the aggregate welfare rule to using capital punishment. The government authorizes its agents to overthrow capital punishment, but does not authorize private parties to murder indeed it forbids murder. (Sunstein, Cass R. and Adrian Vermeule. 13) This is an obvious moral contradiction in terms between what government allows itself to do and what is disallows its citizens to do. The public regards the government action as a moral standard, the conclusion government made influences public sound judgment. On the other hand, the deontologists supporters believe that any killing is against moral principle. Life-life tradeoff is the key of the moral issue. This method is best way to the extent that a refusal to impose capital punishment yields a world-shattering increase in the number of deaths of innocent people inste ad of risk-risk tradeoff. Sunstein, Cass R. , and Adrian Vermeule. 6) sink private parties to murder indeed it forbids murder. A see from Gallup about Values and Beliefs in American moral views of social issues shows that in 2012, only 58 people saying the death penalty is morally acceptable, and this number down from 65% compare with 2011. The dramatic drop shows that along with the society development, more and more people are tends to against death penalty. Another important survey exposes in 2010, this survey is about public opinion of whether put murders in the death penalty or stay in the prison for life.Less than half (49%) chose the death penalty, while 46% chose life without parole. (gallup. com) not everybody agrees abolished the death penalty, but from the statics, most citizens support to abolish the capital punishment. For some such consequentialists, killings are, under ordinary, circumstances, a violation of rights, and this point is highly relevant to any judgment, about killings. (Sunstein, Cass R. , and Adrian Vermeule. 15) The death penalty is a cruel punishment that should be abolish to accord with public opinion. The death penalty is against the moral principle of Buddhism.Considering that Buddhist take most of proportion of the worlds population, eespecially in Asiatic nations. ( Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Wang Hsiao-Ming. 2) Compare to western religion, such as Christianity, the Buddhism focus on life meaning. The Four Noble Truths are the essential principle in Buddhism, first is all life is characterized by distress second, ignorance, attachment, and anger cause human suffering third, the cause of suffering can be terminated and the forth one is suffering can be overcome through the Noble Eightfold Path. These four rules is the basis of Buddhism morality, which decide what is dandy or bad. (Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Wang Hsiao-Ming. 4-6). For the death penalty, the death row is obvious unacceptable for the Buddhist. Even death p enalty been use to punish criminals, but before the execution, the longtime death row will cause criminals mental illness. In Buddhism principle, all the creatures are have life, and needs to be respect, the memory and imagination makes people different from animals. (Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Wang Hsiao-Ming. ) The Buddhist follows up the rules of do not killing while the government sentence prisoners to death. Buddhism monks avoid to use violence, but in death penalty, even drowning, hanging was exist in the past, but the death row and metal torture still counts as violence. Buddhist doctrines hold nonviolence and compassion for all life in high regard(Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Wang Hsiao-Ming. 13) Because the death penalty disrespect life value, abolishing is necessary. Since the justice system is not mistake-free, so an error will leads to an innocent person being executed.Based on Michael J Berwanger term, Death Is Different Actual ingenuousness and monotonous Exclusion Cl aims under the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act,there are two types of whiteness one claiming actual innocence of the underlying offense, and the other claiming innocence of the penalty. (Berwanger Michael JPage 3) However, both types of innocent people can be sentenced in death. A study from Columbia University, release by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), Professor James Liebman says that thousands of capital sentences that had been reviewed by courts in 34 states from 1973 to 1995. There is a clear sign to show that justice system still have many mistakes. No one can guarantee the absolute justice. Moreover, Liebman also mentions that An astonishing 82 percent of death row inmates did not deserve to receive the death penalty, At last, he concludes that One in twenty death row inmates are later found not guilty. (ACLU. org) From the statics, it is clear there is no way to revise the death penalty mistake. Also, a survey from American Civil Liberties Union shows that until February 2004, 113 inmates had been found innocent and released from death row. ACLU. org)More than half of these have been released in the last 10 years. That means one person has been exonerated for every eight people executed. Yet for others who do not have a chance to release from death row are being executed. There have been over 1,000 people executed since 1976 also innocent. Hence, there is a list from a project of the University of the Michigan Law School and the Center on wrongful Convictions at Northwestern University School of Law about known vindications in the United States ? to support that the death penalty must be abolished.The death penalty is racist and gender bias According to an article Racial Discrimination in the Administration of the Death Penalty The Experience of the United States Armed Forces (1984-2005), the washout bias in the death penalty directly impeded justice. As we know, racial discrimination is a historical issue since the 19th century, which year is the blooming period of slave trade. Hundreds of years later, the discrimination between different races still exists. A report released by the New Jersey Supreme Courtin 2001 mentions that the death penalty possible use as a primary punishment for crime murder a white victim.The report proves that the race influences the judicial fairness the race cannot determine the crime. Furthermore, a survey from The U. S. Department of referee (DOJ) says Of the 18 prisoners currently on federal death row, 16 are distributively African-American, Hispanic or Asian. The modify of ones skin determined the severity of the punishment. Ironically, 84% of victims in death penalty cases are white, although only 50% of murder victims are white. (ACLU. org) It is ridiculous and unacceptable that the color of a defendant has great influence ondecision who receiving the death penalty.Besides that, the death penalty is also associated with gender discrimination. The womanish vi ctim cases more likely leads defendant to sentence death than the male victim cases. (Marian Williams R, Demuth Stephen and Holcomb Jefferson E. 3) Although the society advocates gender equality, the current justice system clearly violates this principle. Moreover, another debate between female and male is female homicide victims may be perceived as engaging in less disreputable or contributing conduct associated with their own victimization compared with male victims. Marian Williams R, Demuth Stephen and Holcomb Jefferson E. ) Race and gender play significant roles in todays judicial system instead of laws it is inevitable that the country abolish the death penalty. The death penalty is a financial burden on the government. Before the defendant is sentenced to death, there are many appears and re-trails. Generally, even the unretentive mistake will raise the outcome. In the article Minority Practice, Majoritys clog The Death Penalty Today, there is a static to shows that death cases may spend more money than expected, and the figure could be as high as 78%. (Liebman, James S. Clarke, Peter.Page 51 ) Moreover, the death penalty cost a significant more amount of money than keeping criminals life in prison without parole. A research from California says that California taxpayers pay at least $117 million each year at the post-conviction level seeking execution of people currently on death row, or $175,000 per inmate per year. (Minsker Natasha 3) These statics shows how expensive to execute criminals instead of keep them in prison for life. On the other hand, the costs of general prison is $59 million a year, it is much cheap compare with the costs of death penalty.In addition to that, everyone involved in a death penalty case must be specially qualified as capable and experienced, including the defense attorney, the judge and the jury. (Minsker Natasha. 7) Which means the government must spend a large amount of money to hire qualified person to inspect ev ery death penalty cases. In fact, a research from federal system reveals that prosecution costs were 67 percent high than defense costs in death penalty cases. The same study found that defense costs in death penalty cases were four times higher than in non-death penalty cases. (Minsker Natasha. ) The government should use the higher cost of the death penalty money on other programs of public safety. In the novelAll I Can See, there are some literary proof to support that death penalty must be abolished. In brown land, the brown crush was sparkly sentenced to death but he was innocence, and the brown land was a death row. When the beautiful fragile woo came, and told the brown butterfly the scenery of green land, actually she offers hope, which like reprieve to the brown butterfly, but he refuse to took it because he thought the chance that can be removed from death row is very small. Dont be silly, flowers cant be red, all the flowers are blue. I have seen some of my land is gr een too, but positively flowers can only be blue. (Bloom. 10) Similarly, the beautiful butterflys reinforced shadow can be seen as convicted crime, so the fish ask her to come down that she can get a reprieve. A shadowand that is not good at allYou must know, little one, it is not good to break the flow, and especially not by creating strong shadow. (Bloom. 26) from those two scenarios, it is clear that the capital punishment will threaten innocent people to accept plea bargaining to avoid death.Moreover, the world of green land is flourishing because there is no death penalty, so the beautiful fragile butterfly has the rainbow color bespeckled wings, and the bee also live in the green land. In the contrast, the brown land is a dead land, just the brown butterfly live there and he does not want to leave this land under death penalty pressure. Yes, I am from this land, but no, I have not travelled beyond my land, and here I see only me. The death penalty caused great mental redre ss to criminals, and leads decay of the society. From the material shown, it is obvious that the death penalty must be abolished.The inhuman execution method is a cruel torture that deprives criminals of their basic human rights. There is no way to reverse active injustices which have led directly to the death of innocent people, and such mistakes prove that the death penalty must be abolished. Moreover, race bias and gender discrimination still exists today. Furthermore, keeping inmates on death row costs a larger amount of money in government finance, so abolishing the death penalty is the most efficient way to help government to unload this financial burden.In addition to that, from analyzing the book All I Can See, we can clearly see that the pressure the death penalty caused innocent people death by analysis the journey of butterfly cross the ocean. In order to preserve the peoples human rights and maintain the stability of the country, the death penalty must be abolished. Abo lishing the death penalty is the only way to ensure justice and control criminal costs. Citation 1. Bedau. Hugo Adam. The Death Penalty in America Current Controversies. Oxford University Press 1997. google book search. June 24 2012.June 24, 2012 2. Mukherjee, Amrita. The Death Penalty as Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment. cruel justice. journal of Criminal Law, Dec2004, Vol. 68 Issue 6, p507-519, 13p. The ICCPR as a Living Instrument June 24, 2012 3. Fellner, J, and Tofte, S. So long as they soften Lethal injections in the United States. 2006, 65p.Criminal justice. June 24, 2012 4. Sunstein, Cass R, and Adrian Vermeule. Is capital punishment morally required? Acts, omissions, and life-life tradeoffs. Stanford Law ReviewDec. 2005 703+. Criminal Justice Collection. Web. 10 July 2012 5. Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Wang Hsiao-Ming. Mercy and Punishment Buddhism and the Death Penalty. Social Justice28. 1 (2001) 231. Criminal Justice Collection. Web. 10 July 2012. http//we b. ebscohost. com. rlib. pace. edu/ehost/detail? sid=b1ef5f32-9e10-4cae-b8a9-ab941ce370e8%40sessionmgr112&vid=1&hid=125&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRldb=cja&AN=5376332 6. Berwanger, Michael J. Death Is Different Actual Innocence and Categorical Exclusion Claims Under The Antiterrorism And Effective Death Penalty Act. New England ledger On Criminal Civil Confinement38. 2 (2012) 307-337. Criminal Justice Abstracts. Web. 10 July 2012. ( http//web. ebscohost. com. rlib. pace. edu/ehost/detail? sid=606d7b0d-5e02-4b278512310e443c2da9%40sessionmgr115vid=1hid=127bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRldb=cjaAN=77479856) *http//www. law. umich. edu/special/exoneration/Pages/browse. aspx 7. Newell Richard, et al. Racial Discrimination in The Administration Of The Death Penalty The Experience Of The United States Armed Forces (1984-2005). Journal Of Criminal Law Criminology101. (2011) 1227-1335. Criminal Justice Abstracts. Web. 10 July 2012. ( http//web. ebscohost. com. rlib. pace. edu/ehost/detail? sid=80aef264-f53f-4c62-8534-fd4b54d079f8%40sessionmgr112vid=1hid=127bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRldb=cjaAN=73365192) 8. Marian Williams R, Demuth Stephen and Holcomb Jefferson E. taste the Influence of Victim Gender in Death Penalty Cases The Importance of Victim Race, Sex-Related Victimization, and Jury finding Making. Criminology45. 4 (2007) 865-891. Criminal Justice Abstracts. Web. 10 July 2012.