Saturday, August 31, 2019
What makes a good parent is when the parent isn't worried about being a good parent. 2. What are some of the common problems that children might have? Temper tantrums, sleeping problems for child and parents, toileting problems, and eating. 3. Why Is play important in the parent-child relationship? Because you need to be there commenting like a sports commentator , It shows the child that your there and you support the child. 4. Do you think you will be a good parent? Why or why not?I think I ould be a great parent because I have the patience todo anything with the child weather It comes to eating or sleeping . After watching the video I think I can easily be a good parent. 1. Why did the men say that they were ready for children? They dldnt really explain why they were ready for children mostly how they got ready. They said they had to give their relationship a bit of time so they can bond as a couple. 2. What did the men have to learn as new fathers? They had to learn how to motina ly let go there old life and grow into a father. . Do you think the fathers enjoy fatherhood more today than in the past? Why or why not? I think that they enjoy being fathers because it has made them focus on there relationship. 4. What are some of the difficulties that new fathers (and mothers) face? Having a social life, and having alone time. 1. What are some of the benefits of being Ã¢â¬Å"childishÃ¢â¬ ? it gives reasons of why not to do things. 2. Why does Svitak say that adults should listen and earn from kids and not Just have kids learning from kids?Do you agree? Why or why not? I disagree because in reality children aren't trusted to teach parents. 3. Why is trust important in the relationship between kids and adults for learning to take place? Because if you dont trust someone you restrict them. 4. Do you agree with Svitak that parents and adults should have high expectations for kids? Why? Yes because later in life when you reach your expectation you can probably excee d higher than your expectations. Parenting skills What makes a good parent is when the parent isn't worried about being a good parent. 2. What are some of the common problems that children might have? Temper tantrums, sleeping problems for child and parents, toileting problems, and eating. 3. Why Is play important in the parent-child relationship? Because you need to be there commenting like a sports commentator , It shows the child that your there and you support the child. 4. Do you think you will be a good parent? Why or why not?I think I ould be a great parent because I have the patience todo anything with the child weather It comes to eating or sleeping . After watching the video I think I can easily be a good parent. 1. Why did the men say that they were ready for children? They dldnt really explain why they were ready for children mostly how they got ready. They said they had to give their relationship a bit of time so they can bond as a couple. 2. What did the men have to learn as new fathers? They had to learn how to motina ly let go there old life and grow into a father. . Do you think the fathers enjoy fatherhood more today than in the past? Why or why not? I think that they enjoy being fathers because it has made them focus on there relationship. 4. What are some of the difficulties that new fathers (and mothers) face? Having a social life, and having alone time. 1. What are some of the benefits of being Ã¢â¬Å"childishÃ¢â¬ ? it gives reasons of why not to do things. 2. Why does Svitak say that adults should listen and earn from kids and not Just have kids learning from kids?Do you agree? Why or why not? I disagree because in reality children aren't trusted to teach parents. 3. Why is trust important in the relationship between kids and adults for learning to take place? Because if you dont trust someone you restrict them. 4. Do you agree with Svitak that parents and adults should have high expectations for kids? Why? Yes because later in life when you reach your expectation you can probably excee d higher than your expectations.
Excessive Borrowing: Our Federal Government's Budget Deficit Maria comes home one day earlier than usual. Her family, two daughters of age five and eight and a stay-at-home husband, is surprised to see her so early and unexpectedly. The tired look on her face reveals the experience she had at work. She brings out a sluggish smile as her daughters rush up to greet her with their warm embraces, reminding her of the happiness they constantly provide but also saddened by their questionable future. Quietly, she sits down in front of her anxious spouse as he patiently awaits the news, sensing the tension in the air.Many people like Maria face the ultimate doom of losing the only method they can gain family income, especially in homes where only one spouse is employed. Laying off workers is the government's Ã¢â¬Å"planÃ¢â¬ for reducing America's deficit. Of course, getting rid of the executive CEO whose company had a rough year would be bad because we all know not to bite the hand that f eeds you. The federal government is planning on making the gap between revenue and borrowing smaller by making cuts here and there throughout certain interests of America.This makes sense because in all economic situations, if you are spending more than you have, then you either need to cut back on how much you spend or manipulate ways to increase revenue. Cutting military spending has been big in debate whether as to reduce our defenses or not. Many people speculate that military cuts are sound in reducing the deficit because it is too large for us to afford today. It is overlooked that we have been dropping our armed forces significantly over several decades since the early 1980s, from 2. 1 million to 1. 4 million in 2010 (Samuelson).The resulting savings of lowering military spending would be little, since there isn't much else to cut from the already reduced forces. If our national security is a large concern, especially after 9/11, then why expose both troops and citizens at ri sk of terrorist attacks and cyber warfare? The government's job is to protect the nation and its people, and putting money towards improved technology and training is necessary for upholding America's safety and reputation. The question of the budget deficit also involves the issue of raising taxes, one that has not gone smoothly since Britain's reign over the colonies.Many people argue the importance of increasing the taxes on the rich in order to support our economy. Although it makes sense that those with more money should be paying more on taxes than lower income people, but the evidence gathered fails to give strength to the claim that many believe is a solution to the deficit problem. For instance, Obama's plan for raising the taxes for Ã¢â¬Å"those making more than $250,00 is expected to bring in merely $0. 7 trillionÃ¢â¬ compared to the overwhelming $13 trillion to be accumulated over the same time period (Malm, Sanandaji).It is obvious how big the gap is between the two intimidating numbers, and the government is just wasting its breath about the potential tax hikes. All the talk about the inevitable decisions of either cutting government programs or increasing taxes to save our deficit, and our economy overall, seems ominous and depressing(Aaron). However, our federal government is looking at this the wrong way. It's not about how much a program is cut or how large the numeric value of the deficit is; it's about what and where the money is being invested to enable consistent growth in the upcoming future(Conason).Think back on the potential tax hikes and how it could barely affect our economy. If increased taxes leads to slight growth in revenue, then won't tax cuts lead to loss in revenue? This is another misconception many people, and the government, have about the Bush tax cuts. It lowered the total federal tax burden in order to Ã¢â¬Å"increase market incentives to work, save, and invest and thus create jobs and increase economic growthÃ¢â¬ (Foy). In essence, the tax cuts focused on the long run instead of the potential losses that immediately followed.Many skeptics challenge the reasoning for investing so much money into helping so many other countries when that money could instead help us improve internal affairs. After all, foreign aid spending has increased to $50 billion a year today, which could be put towards funding education to ensure that more kids go to college and possibly affecting the innovation of the future(Morris). Giving more than you receive is nice, but when it involves a country's financial crisis, maybe it's best if Santa cuts back some of this year's presents.And although the argument may be valid, lending out a helping hand can create more allies than enemies to help us in return when we need it. In fact, foreign aid only accounts for 0. 5 percent of the federal budget (Stearn). Compared to all the other matters at hand that the government is worrying about, the amount of spending put into aidi ng poorer countries is positive in both a moral aspect and a political aspect. The federal budget deficit that we put so much trust in having handled for us is not to be dismissed so easily. This isn't just about the future of our current generation, but also our children's future.Our government fails to look back at history and see how growth has improved our economy and made it flourish. Ultimately, what's at stake here if nothing is done is our jobs, job benefits, our safety, and, overall, having a weak country whose currency is based off of its own good name. By no means is having a high deficit bad, and neither is creating a budget deficit to combat it, but it's all about how the government is handling it, and less spending doesn't always mean more revenue. Works Cited Samuelson, Robert J. Ã¢â¬Å"The Dangerous Debate over Cutting Military Spending. http://www. washingtonpost. com/opinions/the-dangerous-debate-over-cutting-military-spending/2011/10/28/gIQAnPWEXM_story. html. 201 1. Rpt. inÃ The US Deficit. Ed. Kathy Jennings and Lynn M. Zott. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. Sanandaji, Tino, and Arvid Malm. Ã¢â¬Å"Raising Taxes Will Not Resolve the Budget Deficit. Ã¢â¬Å"The US Deficit. Ed. Kathy Jennings and Lynn M. Zott. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from Ã¢â¬Å"Obama's Folly: Why Taxing the Rich Is No Solution. http://www. american. com/archive/2011/august/obamasfollytaxingtherich/ article_print. 2011. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. Conason, Joe. Ã¢â¬Å"Deficits Do Not Matter. Ã¢â¬ Ã The Federal Budget Deficit. Ed. Susan Hunnicutt. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. At Issue. Rpt. from Ã¢â¬Å"Dick Cheney Was Right: Deficits Don't MatterÃ¢â¬âand Republicans Who are Complaining About Barack Obama's Spending Are Hypocrites. Ã¢â¬ Ã Salon. com. 2009. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. Aaron, Henry J. Ã¢â¬Å"The Un ited States Needs to Address Two Distinct Budget Deficits. Government Spending. Ed. Noel Merino. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from Ã¢â¬Å"A Tale of Two Deficits: Stop Treating Them Like They're the Same Thing! Ã¢â¬ Ã New RepublicÃ (1 June 2011). Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. Foy, Andrew, and Brenton Stransky. Ã¢â¬Å"The Bush Tax Cuts Were Good for Economic Growth. Ã¢â¬ Ã Government Spending. Ed. Noel Merino. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from Ã¢â¬Å"Lying About Bush's Tax Cuts. Ã¢â¬Å"www. americanthinker. com. 2010. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.Stearns, Richard. Ã¢â¬Å"Congress Should Not Cut Foreign Aid. Ã¢â¬ Ã Is Foreign Aid Necessary? Ed. David Haugen and Susan Musser. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. At Issue. Rpt. from Ã¢â¬Å"Cutting Foreign Aid: Not the America I Love. Ã¢â¬ Ã Huffington Post. 2011. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. Morris, Di ck. Ã¢â¬Å"Congress Should Cut Foreign Aid. Ã¢â¬ Ã Is Foreign Aid Necessary? Ed. David Haugen and Susan Musser. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. At Issue. Rpt. from Ã¢â¬Å"Cut Foreign Aid Budget Now. Ã¢â¬ Ã http://thehill. comÃ (29 Mar. 2011). Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Domestic effluent intervention or sewerage intervention, is the procedure of taking contaminations from effluent and family sewerage, both overflow ( wastewaters ) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological procedures to take physical, chemical and biological contaminations. Its aim is to bring forth an environmentally-safe fluid waste watercourse ( or treated wastewater ) and a solid waste ( or treated sludge ) suitable for disposal or reuse ( normally as farm fertiliser ) . Using advanced engineering it is now possible to re-use sewerage wastewater for imbibing H2O, although Singapore is the lone state to implement such engineering on a production graduated table in its production of NEWater. 1.2 ORIGIN OF WASTE WATER Sewage is created by residential, institutional, and commercial and industrial constitutions and includes family waste liquid from lavatories, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks and so forth that is disposed of via cloacas. In many countries, sewerage besides includes liquid waste from industry and commercialism. The separation and draining of family waste into greywater and blackwater is going more common in the developed universe, with greywater being permitted to be used for irrigating workss or recycled for blushing lavatories. Sewage may include stormwater overflow. Sewage systems capable of managing stormwater are known as combined systems. Combined sewer systems are normally avoided now because precipitation causes widely changing flows cut downing sewerage intervention works efficiency. Combined cloacas require much larger, more expensive, intervention installations than healthful cloacas. Heavy storm overflow may overpower the sewerage intervention system, doing a spill or flood. Sanitary cloacas are typically much smaller than combined cloacas, and they are non designed to transport stormwater. Backups of natural sewerage can happen if inordinate Infiltration/Inflow is allowed into a healthful cloaca system. Modern sewered developments be given to be provided with separate storm drain systems for rainwater. As rainfall travels over roofs and the land, it may pick up assorted contaminations including dirt atoms and other deposit, heavy metals, organic compounds, carnal waste, and oil and lubricating oil. ( See urban overflow. ) Some legal powers require stormwater to have some degree of intervention before being discharged straight into waterways. Examples of intervention procedures used for stormwater include keeping basins, wetlands, buried vaults with assorted sorts of media filters, and vortex centrifuges ( to take harsh solids ) . Chapter TWO 2.1 OVERVIEW OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES Sewage can be treated near to where it is created, a decentralized system, ( in infected armored combat vehicles, biofilters or aerophilic intervention systems ) , or be collected and transported via a web of pipes and pump Stationss to a municipal intervention works, a centralized system, ( see sewage and pipes and substructure ) . Sewage aggregation and intervention is typically capable to local, province and federal ordinances and criterions. Industrial beginnings of effluent frequently require specialised intervention processes as shown in the diagram below: Procedure Flow Diagram for a typical intervention works via Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands ( SFCW ) Sewage intervention by and large involves three phases, called primary, secondary and third intervention. Primary intervention consists of temporarily keeping the sewerage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the underside while oil, lubricating oil and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating stuffs are removed and the staying liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary intervention. Secondary intervention removes dissolved and suspended biological affair. Secondary intervention is typically performed by autochthonal, water-borne microorganisms in a managed home ground. Secondary intervention may necessitate a separation procedure to take the microorganisms from the treated H2O prior to dispatch or third intervention. Third intervention is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary intervention in order to let rejection into a extremely sensitive or delicate ecosystem ( estuaries, low-flow rivers, coral reefs etc. ) . Treated H2O is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically ( for illustration, by lagunas and microfiltration ) prior to dispatch into a watercourse, river, bay, laguna or wetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf class, green manner or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can besides be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural intents. 2.2 PRE-TREATMENT Pre-treatment removes stuffs that can be easy collected from the natural waste H2O before they damage or clog the pumps and skimmers of primary intervention clarifiers ( rubbish, tree limbs, foliages, etc. ) . Screening The inflowing sewerage H2O is screened to take all big objects like tins, shreds, sticks, fictile packages etc. carried in the sewerage watercourse. This is most normally done with an automated automatically raked saloon screen in modern workss functioning big populations, whilst in smaller or less modern workss a manually cleaned screen may be used. The raking action of a mechanical saloon screen is typically paced harmonizing to the accretion on the saloon screens and/or flow rate. The solids are collected and subsequently disposed in a landfill or incinerated. Bar screens or mesh screens of changing sizes may be used to optimise solids remotion. If gross solids are non removed they become entrained in pipes and traveling parts of the intervention works and can do significant harm and inefficiency in the procedure. GRIT REMOVAL Pre-treatment may include a sand or grit channel or chamber where the speed of the entrance effluent is adjusted to let the colony of sand, grit, rocks, and broken glass. These atoms are removed because they may damage pumps and other equipment. For little healthful cloaca systems, the grit Chamberss may non be necessary, but grit remotion is desirable at larger workss. FAT AND GREASE REMOVAL In some larger workss, fat and lubricating oil is removed by go throughing the sewerage through a little armored combat vehicle where skimmers collect the fat natation on the surface. Air blowers in the base of the armored combat vehicle may besides be used to assist retrieve the fat as a foam. In most workss nevertheless, fat and lubricating oil remotion takes topographic point in the primary colony armored combat vehicle utilizing mechanical surface skimmers. 2.3 PRIMARY TREATMENT In the primary deposit phase, sewerage flows through big armored combat vehicles, normally called Ã¢â¬Å" primary clarifiers Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å" primary deposit armored combat vehicles. Ã¢â¬ The armored combat vehicles are used to settle sludge while lubricating oil and oils rise to the surface and are skimmed off. Primary settling armored combat vehicles are normally equipped with automatically goaded scrapers that continually drive the gathered sludge towards a hopper in the base of the armored combat vehicle where it is pumped to sludge intervention installations. Grease and oil from the drifting stuff can sometimes be recovered for saponification. The dimensions of the armored combat vehicle should be designed to consequence remotion of a high per centum of the floatables and sludge. A typical deposit armored combat vehicle may take from 60 to 65 per centum of suspended solids, and from 30 to 35 per centum of biochemical O demand ( BOD ) from the sewerage. 2.4 SECONDARY TREATMENT Secondary intervention is designed to well degrade the biological content of the sewerage which are derived from human waste, nutrient waste, soaps and detergent. The bulk of municipal workss handle the settled sewerage spirits utilizing aerophilic biological procedures. To be effectual, the biology necessitate both O and nutrient to populate. The bacterium and Protozoa consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminations ( e.g. sugars, fats, organic short-chain C molecules, etc. ) and adhere much of the less soluble fractions into floc. Secondary intervention systems are classified as fixed-film or suspended-growth systems. Fixed-film or affiliated growing systems include dribbling filters and revolving biological contactors, where the biomass grows on media and the sewerage passes over its surface. Suspended-growth systems include activated sludge, where the biomass is assorted with the sewerage and can be operated in a smaller infinite than fixed-film systems that treat the same sum of H2O. However, fixed-film systems are more able to get by with drastic alterations in the sum of biological stuff and can supply higher remotion rates for organic stuff and suspended solids than suspended growing systems. [ 6 ] :11-13 Rough ining filters are intended to handle peculiarly strong or variable organic tonss, typically industrial, to let them to so be treated by conventional secondary intervention procedures. Features include filters filled with media to which effluent is applied. They are designed to let high hydraulic burden and a high degree of aeration. On larger installings, air is forced through the media utilizing blowers. The attendant effluent is normally within the normal scope for conventional intervention procedures. A generalised, conventional diagram of an activated sludge procedure. A filter removes a little per centum of the suspended organic affair, while the bulk of the organic affair undergoes a alteration of character, merely due to the biological oxidization and nitrification taking topographic point in the filter. With this aerophilic oxidization and nitrification, the organic solids are converted into coagulated suspended mass, which is heavier and bulkier, and can settle to the underside of a armored combat vehicle. The wastewater of the filter is hence passed through a deposit armored combat vehicle, called a secondary clarifier, secondary subsiding armored combat vehicle or humus armored combat vehicle. ACTIVATED SLUDGE In general, activated sludge workss encompass a assortment of mechanisms and procedures that use dissolved O to advance the growing of biological floc that well removes organic stuff. The procedure traps particulate stuff and can, under ideal conditions, convert ammonium hydroxide to nitrite and nitrate and finally to nitrogen gas. SURFACE-AERATED BASINS ( LAGOONS ) Many little municipal sewerage systems in the United States ( 1 million gal./day or less ) usage aerated lagunas. Most biological oxidization processes for handling industrial effluents have in common the usage of O ( or air ) and microbic action. Surface-aerated basins achieve 80 to 90 per centum remotion of BOD with keeping times of 1 to 10 yearss. The basins may run in deepness from 1.5 to 5.0 meters and utilize motor-driven aerators drifting on the surface of the effluent. In an aerated basin system, the aerators provide two maps: they transfer air into the basins required by the biological oxidization reactions, and they provide the commixture required for scattering the air and for reaching the reactants ( that is, O, effluent and bug ) . Typically, the drifting surface aerators are rated to present the sum of air tantamount to 1.8 to 2.7A kilograms O2/kWAÃ ·h. However, they do non supply as good commixture as is usually achieved in activated sludge systems and hence aerated basins do non accomplish the same public presentation degree as activated sludge units. Biological oxidization procedures are sensitive to temperature and, between 0 AÃ °C and 40 AÃ °C, the rate of biological reactions increase with temperature. Most surface aerated vass operate at between 4 AÃ °C and 32 AÃ °C. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS Constructed wetlands ( can either be surface flow or subsurface flow, horizontal or perpendicular flow ) , include engineered reedbeds and belong to the household of phytorestoration and ecotechnologies ; they provide a high grade of biological betterment and depending on design, act as a primary, secondary and sometimes third intervention, besides see phytoremediation. One illustration is a little reedbed used to clean the drainage from the elephants Ã¢â¬Ë enclosure at Chester Zoo in England ; legion CWs are used to recycle the H2O of the metropolis of Honfleur in France and legion other towns in Europe, the US, Asia and Australia. They are known to be extremely productive systems as they copy natural wetlands, called the Ã¢â¬Å" Kidneys of the Earth Ã¢â¬ for their cardinal recycling capacity of the hydrological rhythm in the biosphere. Robust and dependable, their intervention capacities improve as clip spell by, at the antonym of conventional intervention workss whose machine ry age with clip. They are being progressively used, although equal and experient design are more cardinal than for other systems and infinite restriction may hinder their usage. FILTER BEDS ( OXIDIZING BEDS ) In older workss and those having variable burdens, dribbling filter beds are used where the settled sewerage spirits is spread onto the surface of a bed made up of coke ( carbonized coal ) , limestone french friess or specially fabricated fictile media. Such media must hold big surface countries to back up the biofilms that form. The spirits is typically distributed through perforated spray weaponries. The distributed spirits drips through the bed and is collected in drains at the base. These drains besides provide a beginning of air which percolates up through the bed, maintaining it aerophilic. Biological movies of bacteriums, Protozoa and fungi signifier on the media Ã¢â¬Ës surfaces and eat or otherwise cut down the organic content. This biofilm is frequently grazed by insect larvae, snails, and worms which help keep an optimum thickness. Overloading of beds increases the thickness of the movie taking to clogging of the filter media and ponding on the surface. SOIL BIO-TECHNOLOGY A new procedure called Soil Bio-Technology ( SBT ) developed at IIT Bombay has shown enormous betterments in procedure efficiency enabling entire H2O reuse, due to highly low runing power demands of less than 50 Js per kilogram of treated H2O. Typically SBT systems can accomplish chemical O demand ( COD ) degrees less than 10A mg/L from sewerage input of COD 400A mg/L. SBT workss exhibit high decreases in COD values and bacterial counts as a consequence of the really high microbic densenesss available in the media. Unlike conventional intervention workss, SBT workss produce undistinguished sums of sludge, preventing the demand for sludge disposal countries that are required by other engineerings. BIOLOGICAL AERATED FILTERS Biological Aerated ( or Anoxic ) Filter ( BAF ) or Biofilters combine filtration with biological C decrease, nitrification or denitrification. BAF normally includes a reactor filled with a filter media. The media is either in suspension or supported by a crushed rock bed at the pes of the filter. The double intent of this media is to back up extremely active biomass that is attached to it and to filtrate suspended solids. Carbon decrease and ammonium hydroxide transition occurs in aerophilic manner and sometime achieved in a individual reactor while nitrate transition occurs in anoxic manner. BAF is operated either in upflow or downflow constellation depending on design specified by maker. Conventional diagram of a typical revolving biological contactor ( RBC ) . The treated wastewater clarifier/settler is non included in the diagram. ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS Revolving biological contactors ( RBCs ) are mechanical secondary intervention systems, which are robust and capable of defying rushs in organic burden. RBCs were foremost installed in Germany in 1960 and have since been developed and refined into a dependable operating unit. The revolving discs back up the growing of bacteriums and micro-organisms nowadays in the sewerage, which break down and brace organic pollutants. To be successful, micro-organisms need both O to populate and nutrient to turn. Oxygen is obtained from the ambiance as the discs rotate. As the micro-organisms grow, they build up on the media until they are sloughed off due to shear forces provided by the revolving phonograph record in the sewerage. Effluent from the RBC is so passed through concluding clarifiers where the microorganisms in suspension settee as a sludge. The sludge is withdrawn from the clarifier for farther intervention. A functionally similar biological filtering system has become popular as portion of place fish tank filtration and purification. The fish tank H2O is drawn up out of the armored combat vehicle and so cascaded over a freely whirling corrugated fiber-mesh wheel before go throughing through a media filter and back into the fish tank. The whirling mesh wheel develops a biofilm coating of micro-organisms that feed on the suspended wastes in the fish tank H2O and are besides exposed to the ambiance as the wheel rotates. This is particularly good at taking waste. MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS Membrane bioreactors ( MBR ) combine activated sludge intervention with a membrane liquid-solid separation procedure. The membrane constituent uses low force per unit area microfiltration or extremist filtration membranes and eliminates the demand for elucidation and third filtration. The membranes are typically immersed in the aeration armored combat vehicle ; nevertheless, some applications utilize a separate membrane armored combat vehicle. One of the cardinal benefits of an MBR system is that it efficaciously overcomes the restrictions associated with hapless subsiding of sludge in conventional activated sludge ( CAS ) processes. The engineering permits bioreactor operation with well higher assorted spirits suspended solids ( MLSS ) concentration than CAS systems, which are limited by sludge subsiding. The procedure is typically operated at MLSS in the scope of 8,000-12,000A mg/L, while CAS are operated in the scope of 2,000-3,000A mg/L. The elevated biomass concentration in the MBR procedure allows for really effectual remotion of both soluble and particulate biodegradable stuffs at higher burden rates. Therefore increased sludge keeping times, normally transcending 15 yearss, guarantee complete nitrification even in highly cold conditions. SECONDARY SEDIMENTATION The concluding measure in the secondary intervention phase is to settle out the biological floc or filter stuff through a secondary clarifier and to bring forth sewage H2O incorporating low degrees of organic stuff and suspended affair. TERTIARY TREATMENT The intent of third intervention is to supply a concluding intervention phase to raise the outflowing quality before it is discharged to the receiving environment ( sea, river, lake, land, etc. ) . More than one third intervention procedure may be used at any intervention works. If disinfection is practiced, it is ever the concluding procedure. It is besides called Ã¢â¬Å" outflowing shining. Ã¢â¬ Filtration Sand filtration removes much of the residuary suspended affair. Filtration over activated C, besides called C surface assimilation, removes residuary toxins. LAGOONING Lagooning provides colony and farther biological betterment through storage in big semisynthetic pools or lagunas. These lagunas are extremely aerophilic and colonisation by native macrophytes, particularly reeds, is frequently encouraged. Small filter feeding invertebrates such as Daphnia and species of Rotifera greatly assist in intervention by taking all right particulates. NUTRIENT REMOVAL Effluent may incorporate high degrees of the foods N and P. Excessive release to the environment can take to a physique up of foods, called eutrophication, which can in bend encourage the giantism of weeds, algae, and blue-green algaes ( bluish green algae ) . This may do an algal bloom, a rapid growing in the population of algae. The algae Numberss are unsustainable and finally most of them die. The decomposition of the algae by bacteriums uses up so much of O in the H2O that most or all of the animate beings die, which creates more organic affair for the bacteriums to break up. In add-on to doing deoxygenation, some algal species produce toxins that contaminate imbibing H2O supplies. Different intervention procedures are required to take N and P. NITROGEN REMOVAL The remotion of N is effected through the biological oxidization of N from ammonium hydroxide to nitrate ( nitrification ) , followed by denitrification, the decrease of nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas is released to the ambiance and therefore removed from the H2O. Nitrification itself is a two-step aerophilic procedure, each measure facilitated by a different type of bacteriums. The oxidization of ammonium hydroxide ( NH3 ) to nitrite ( NO2a?Ã¢â¬â¢ ) is most frequently facilitated by Nitrosomonas spp. ( nitroso mentioning to the formation of a nitroso functional group ) . Nitrite oxidization to nitrate ( NO3a?Ã¢â¬â¢ ) , though traditionally believed to be facilitated by Nitrobacter spp. ( nitro mentioning the formation of a nitro functional group ) , is now known to be facilitated in the environment about entirely by Nitrospira spp. Denitrification requires anoxic conditions to promote the appropriate biological communities to organize. It is facilitated by a broad diverseness of bacteriums. Sand filters, lagooning and reed beds can all be used to cut down N, but the activated sludge procedure ( if designed good ) can make the occupation the most easy. Since denitrification is the decrease of nitrate to dinitrogen gas, an negatron giver is needed. This can be, depending on the effluent, organic affair ( from fecal matters ) , sulfide, or an added giver like methyl alcohol. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL Phosphorus remotion is of import as it is a confining food for algae growing in many fresh H2O systems. ( For a description of the negative effects of algae, see Nutrient remotion ) . It is besides peculiarly of import for H2O reuse systems where high P concentrations may take to fouling of downstream equipment such as rearward osmosis. Phosphorus can be removed biologically in a procedure called enhanced biological P remotion. In this procedure, specific bacterium, called polyphosphate roll uping beings ( PAOs ) , are selectively enriched and roll up big measures of P within their cells ( up to 20 per centum of their mass ) . When the biomass enriched in these bacteriums is separated from the treated H2O, these biosolids have a high fertiliser value. Phosphorus remotion can besides be achieved by chemical precipitation, normally with salts of Fe ( e.g. ferrous chloride ) , aluminium ( e.g. alum ) , or lime. This may take to inordinate sludge production as hydrated oxides precipitates and the added chemicals can be expensive. Chemical P remotion requires significantly smaller equipment footmark than biological remotion, is easier to run and is frequently more dependable than biological P removalA . Another method for P remotion is to utilize farinaceous laterite. Once removed, P, in the signifier of a phosphate-rich sludge, may be stored in a land fill or resold for usage in fertiliser. Disinfection The intent of disinfection in the intervention of waste H2O is to well cut down the figure of micro-organisms in the H2O to be discharged back into the environment. The effectivity of disinfection depends on the quality of the H2O being treated ( e.g. , cloud cover, pH, etc. ) , the type of disinfection being used, the bactericidal dose ( concentration and clip ) , and other environmental variables. Cloudy H2O will be treated less successfully, since solid affair can screen organisms, particularly from ultraviolet visible radiation or if contact times are low. By and large, short contact times, low doses and high flows all militate against effectual disinfection. Common methods of disinfection include ozone, Cl, ultraviolet visible radiation, or Na hypochlorite. Chloramine, which is used for imbibing H2O, is non used in waste H2O intervention because of its continuity. Chlorination remains the most common signifier of waste H2O disinfection in North America due to its low cost and long-run history of effectivity. One disadvantage is that chlorination of residuary organic stuff can bring forth chlorinated-organic compounds that may be carcinogenic or harmful to the environment. Residual Cl or chloramines may besides be capable of chlorinating organic stuff in the natural aquatic environment. Further, because residuary Cl is toxic to aquatic species, the treated wastewater must besides be chemically dechlorinated, adding to the complexness and cost of intervention. Ultraviolet ( UV ) light can be used alternatively of Cl, I, or other chemicals. Because no chemicals are used, the treated H2O has no inauspicious consequence on beings that subsequently devour it, as may be the instance with other methods. UV radiation causes harm to the familial construction of bacteriums, viruses, and other pathogens, doing them incapable of reproduction. The cardinal disadvantages of UV disinfection are the demand for frequent lamp care and replacing and the demand for a extremely treated wastewater to guarantee that the mark micro-organisms are non shielded from the UV radiation ( i.e. , any solids nowadays in the treated wastewater may protect micro-organisms from the UV visible radiation ) . In the United Kingdom, UV visible radiation is going the most common agencies of disinfection because of the concerns about the impacts of Cl in chlorinating residuary organics in the effluent and in chlorinating organics in the receiving H2O. Some sewerage intervention s ystems in Canada and the US besides use UV visible radiation for their outflowing H2O disinfection. Ozone ( O3 ) is generated by go throughing O ( O2 ) through a high electromotive force possible resulting in a 3rd O atom going attached and organizing O3. Ozone is really unstable and reactive and oxidizes most organic stuff it comes in contact with, thereby destructing many infective micro-organisms. Ozone is considered to be safer than Cl because, unlike Cl which has to be stored on site ( extremely toxicant in the event of an inadvertent release ) , ozone is generated onsite as needed. Ozonation besides produces fewer disinfection byproducts than chlorination. A disadvantage of ozone disinfection is the high cost of the ozone coevals equipment and the demands for particular operators. ODOUR CONTROL Smells emitted by sewerage intervention are typically an indicant of an anaerobic or Ã¢â¬Å" infected Ã¢â¬ status. Early phases of processing will be given to bring forth fetid gases, with H sulphide being most common in bring forthing ailments. Large procedure workss in urban countries will frequently handle the smells with C reactors, a contact media with bio-slimes, little doses of Cl, or go arounding fluids to biologically capture and metabolise the objectionable gases. Other methods of odour control exist, including add-on of Fe salts, H peroxide, Ca nitrate, etc. to pull off H sulphide degrees. Package Plants AND BATCH REACTORS To utilize less infinite, dainty hard waste and intermittent flows, a figure of designs of intercrossed intervention workss have been produced. Such workss frequently combine at least two phases of the three chief intervention phases into one combined phase. In the UK, where a big figure of effluent intervention workss serve little populations, bundle workss are a feasible option to constructing a big construction for each procedure phase. In the US, bundle workss are typically used in rural countries, main road remainder Michigans and dawdler Parkss. One type of system that combines secondary intervention and colony is the sequencing batch reactor ( SBR ) . Typically, activated sludge is assorted with natural entrance sewerage, and so assorted and aerated. The settled sludge is run away and re-aerated before a proportion is returned to the headworks. SBR workss are now being deployed in many parts of the universe. The disadvantage of the SBR procedure is that it requires a precise control of timing, blending and aeration. This preciseness is typically achieved with computing machine controls linked to detectors. Such a complex, delicate system is unsuited to topographic points where controls may be undependable, ill maintained, or where the power supply may be intermittent. Extended aeration bundle workss use separate basins for aeration and subsiding, and are slightly larger than SBR workss with decreased timing sensitiveness. Package workss may be referred to every bit high charged or low charged. This refers to the manner the biological burden is processed. In high charged systems, the biological phase is presented with a high organic burden and the combined floc and organic stuff is so oxygenated for a few hours before being charged once more with a new burden. In the low charged system the biological phase contains a low organic burden and is combined with flocculate for longer times. SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL The sludges accumulated in a effluent intervention procedure must be treated and disposed of in a safe and effectual mode. The intent of digestion is to cut down the sum of organic affair and the figure of disease-causing micro-organisms present in the solids. The most common intervention options include anaerobiotic digestion, aerophilic digestion, and composting. Incineration is besides used albeit to a much lesser grade. Sludge intervention depends on the sum of solids generated and other site-specific conditions. Composting is most frequently applied to small-scale workss with aerophilic digestion for mid sized operations, and anaerobiotic digestion for the larger-scale operations. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION Anaerobic digestion is a bacterial procedure that is carried out in the absence of O. The procedure can either be thermophilic digestion, in which sludge is fermented in armored combat vehicles at a temperature of 55AÃ °C, or mesophilic, at a temperature of around 36AÃ °C. Though leting shorter keeping clip ( and therefore smaller armored combat vehicles ) , thermophilic digestion is more expensive in footings of energy ingestion for heating the sludge. Anaerobic digestion is the most common ( mesophilic ) intervention of domestic sewerage in infected armored combat vehicles, which usually retain the sewerage from one twenty-four hours to two yearss, cut downing the BOD by approximately 35 to 40 per centum. This decrease can be increased with a combination of anaerobiotic and aerophilic intervention by put ining Aerobic Treatment Units ( ATUs ) in the infected armored combat vehicle. One major characteristic of anaerobiotic digestion is the production of biogas ( with the most utile constituent being methane ) , which can be used in generators for electricity production and/or in boilers for warming intents. AEROBIC DIGESTION Aerobic digestion is a bacterial procedure happening in the presence of O. Under aerophilic conditions, bacteriums quickly consume organic affair and change over it into C dioxide. The operating costs used to be characteristically much greater for aerophilic digestion because of the energy used by the blowers, pumps and motors needed to add O to the procedure. Aerobic digestion can besides be achieved by utilizing diffuser systems or jet aerators to oxidise the sludge. COMPOSTING Composting is besides an aerophilic procedure that involves blending the sludge with beginnings of C such as sawdust, straw or wood french friess. In the presence of O, bacterium digest both the effluent solids and the added C beginning and, in making so, produce a big sum of heat. Incineration Incineration of sludge is less common because of air emanations concerns and the auxiliary fuel ( typically natural gases or fuel oil ) required to fire the low calorific value sludge and zap residuary H2O. Stepped multiple fireplace incinerators with high abode clip and fluidized bed incinerators are the most common systems used to burn effluent sludge. Co-firing in municipal waste-to-energy workss is on occasion done, this option being less expensive presuming the installations already exist for solid waste and there is no demand for subsidiary fuel. Chapter THREE TERTIARY TREATMENT 3.1 SLUDGE DISPOSAL When a liquid sludge is produced, farther intervention may be required to do it suited for concluding disposal. Typically, sludges are thickened ( dewatered ) to cut down the volumes transported off-site for disposal. There is no procedure which wholly eliminates the demand to dispose of biosolids. There is, nevertheless, an extra measure some metropoliss are taking to superheat sludge and change over it into little pelletized granules that are high in N and other organic stuffs. In New York City, for illustration, several sewerage intervention workss have dewatering installations that use big extractors along with the add-on of chemicals such as polymer to farther take liquid from the sludge. The removed fluid, called centrate, is typically reintroduced into the effluent procedure. The merchandise which is left is called Ã¢â¬Å" bar Ã¢â¬ and that is picked up by companies which turn it into fertilizer pellets. This merchandise is so sold to local husbandmans and sod farms as a di rt amendment or fertiliser, cut downing the sum of infinite required to dispose of sludge in landfills. Much sludge arising from commercial or industrial countries is contaminated with toxic stuffs that are released into the cloacas from the industrial procedures. Elevated concentrations of such stuffs may do the sludge unsuitable for agricultural usage and it may so hold to be incinerated or disposed of to landfill. 3.2 TREATMENT IN THE RECEIVING ENVIRONMENT Many procedures in a effluent intervention works are designed to mime the natural intervention processes that occur in the environment, whether that environment is a natural H2O organic structure or the land. If non overloaded, bacteriums in the environment will devour organic contaminations, although this will cut down the degrees of O in the H2O and may significantly alter the overall ecology of the receiving H2O. Native bacterial populations feed on the organic contaminations, and the Numberss of disease-causing micro-organisms are reduced by natural environmental conditions such as predation or exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Consequently, in instances where the receiving environment provides a high degree of dilution, a high grade of effluent intervention may non be required. However, recent grounds has demonstrated that really low degrees of specific contaminations in effluent, including endocrines ( from animate being farming and residue from human hormonal contraceptive me thod methods ) and man-made stuffs such as phthalates that mimic endocrines in their action, can hold an unpredictable inauspicious impact on the natural biology and potentially on worlds if the H2O is re-used for imbibing H2O. [ 21 ] In the US and EU, uncontrolled discharges of effluent to the environment are non permitted under jurisprudence, and rigorous H2O quality demands are to be met. ( For demands in the US, see Clean Water Act. ) A important menace in the coming decennaries will be the increasing uncontrolled discharges of effluent within quickly developing states. 3.3 SEWAGE TREATMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Few dependable figures on the portion of the effluent collected in cloacas that is being treated in the universe exist. In many developing states the majority of domestic and industrial effluent is discharged without any intervention or after primary intervention merely. In Latin America about 15 % of gathered effluent base on ballss through intervention workss ( with varying degrees of existent intervention ) . In Venezuela, a below mean state in South America with regard to wastewater intervention, 97 per centum of the state Ã¢â¬Ës sewerage is discharged natural into the environment. In a comparatively developed Middle Eastern state such as Iran, Tehran Ã¢â¬Ës bulk of population has wholly untreated sewerage injected to the metropolis Ã¢â¬Ës groundwater. However now the building of major parts of the sewerage system, aggregation and intervention, in Tehran is about complete, and under development, due to be to the full completed by the terminal of 2012. In Israel, approximately 50 per centum of agricultural H2O use ( entire usage was 1 billion three-dimensional meters in 2008 ) is provided through reclaimed cloaca H2O. Future programs call for increased usage of treated cloaca H2O every bit good as more desalinization workss.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Love Social Problem - Essay Example It is essential that we, as a society, address childhood obesity. This problem is a social problem for several reasons. Firstly, with the interconnected world we live in, in which resources are so scarce, any over-use of resources by one group of people leads to a shortage or resources for another. In the case of childhood obesity, food is obviously being over-consumed, but this also leads to an over-consumption of many other types of resources such as medical care, that could otherwise be better distributed or lower cost. These are social ills and require a society-wide effort to address them. Childhood obesity is an enormous problem for all of our society that must be addressed by everyone in it. The exact sources of childhood obesity are hard to pinpoint Ã¢â¬â there is probably a complex interrelation of a variety of factors. But two things are clear Ã¢â¬â for obesity to occur, children are both eating too much and exercising too little. The origins of both of these problems are societal in nature. Over-consumption is rampant in developed countries; we more, electricity, oil, media, clothing, and nearly everything else than other countries. Everything in the developed world is super-sized, cheap, and made to be consumed in massive amounts. This is especially true of food, where the simplest foods to eat are by far the worst for you Ã¢â¬â processed foods high in fat and carbohydrates, which encourage children to develop an addiction to both of those things, and parents a love for the simplicity of providing that kind of food to their children. Furthermore, the social activities that children engage in are becoming less and less physical demanding Ã¢â¬â previously children would have to actually play together, moving around, to entertain themselves, but now entertainment is essentially beamed into their brains in the form of television and video games, which encourage lethargy
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The Patients with Stroke - Assignment Example It is a responsibility of a hard-headed nurse in assessing the religious and spiritual issues, family and social issues, and independence and activity issues in strict coherence with the physical symptoms and psychological distresses (Williams & Perry, 2010). Bearing it in mind, there comes a clear understanding of the link between the nursing interventions needful for stroke and ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s patients. ... To say more, it is a difficult process at a glance which needs a thorough look into blood tests, ECG, CT scans, and other medical interventions to be specifically assessed within a concrete time-limit. In this vein, a nurse should provide a set of practical treatments to make a patient go out of the depression caused by the neurological disorders discussed in the paper. One of the approaches is to pinpoint the exact source of anxiety among ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s multiple sclerosis patients (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirksen, Goldsworthy, & Barry, 2006). It is a mandatory step for promoting efficacy through accuracy in nursing. On the other hand, what unites the three diseases in accordance with nursing intervention is the need for the Ã¢â¬Å"ask-tell-ask (also known as Ã¢â¬Å"Elicit-Provide-ElicitÃ¢â¬ ) communication techniqueÃ¢â¬ (RNAO, 2010, p. 7). This is one of the general similarities in coping with the stroke, ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s, and multiple sclerosis patients. Needless to say, most clients with a chronic neurologic disorder will experience feelings of depression and hopelessness, and, therefore, a nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s care should be focused on this in the interpersonal dimension of care. Besides, to relieve the anxiety among ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s patients, a nurse is to have a set of procedures and implementations to be run during the whole process of intensive medical care.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Age in acquiring first language Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Age in acquiring first language - Research Paper Example Society classifies individuals who speak the same language in a single group. In light of this, it is critical for one to understand the acquisition process and the relevance of the critical period in language acquisition. There are major theories of language acquisition exist in the development, which include linguistic nativism, behaviorism, and social interactionism. Linguistic nativism infers that language acquisition is a predetermined process. Nativists hypothesize that children are innately able in acquiring language. Supporters of behaviorism inferred that nurture played a main role in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s acquisition of language. According to them, the environment through different agents such as parents modeled or taught children how to comprehend and speak a specific language. The focus of these theorists was on two major processes, operant and classical conditioning. The social-interactionism perspective asserts that both innate biological and social factors predispose childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s acquisition of language. According to them innate/biological factors such as a slowly maturing brain capable of assimilating new information and social factors such as parents, teachers influence language development in children. These theorists acknowledge the role of adults in supporting childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s language acquisition through child-directed speech. In addition, they acknowledge childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s personal intentional participation in language acquisition through their reliance on their innate nature. Before learning the rules that govern language, children communicate through crying and non-verbal communication (gestures). Later, interaction with parents enables them to develop oral language specific to their society and prepares them for the acquisition of other literacy skills. This shows that literacy development is a systematic gradual process. Children move from first stage of communicating (crying and non-verbal communication) to an intermediary stage (oral
Monday, August 26, 2019
Lab Report Example The product produced is easy to handle and easy to apply due to the use of peppermint oil. The peppermint also improves its flavor. As provided by the ingredients we can see that calcium carbonate is the major ingredient with the heaviest weight (Field). As discussed above the ingredient is responsible for protection against tooth decay, dental carries and other forms of tooth infections. Re-mineralization is a basic concern in preparation of any toothpaste since it helps in fighting dental carries a common disease worldwide. Calcium and phosphate are also important since they are able to alter cariogenic potential of dental plaque biofilm. The paste is applied depending on the size of the toothbrush. A small amount is applied and brushed over the teeth in a normal brushing way (Perlich, Bacca and Bollmer). The contents should be disposed immediately the process of brushing is over. The mouth should be cleaned and rinsed with fresh clean water. The toothpaste has no harmful effects and can be used regularly depending on the user needs. The paste should be stored in a cool and dry place to prevent it from drying. The paste should be used while fresh and valid. If it expires it can have negative and harmful effects. Since it is homemade and non-medicated it is advisable that little content is made at a time to prevent cases if impurity. Homemade paste made ensured protection of the gums and the teeth in general since these are the main reasons as to why people go for toothpastes. The paste helps in re-mineralization which is also an important aspect of dental carries control and other infections in the mouth. Perlich, MA, et al. "The clinical effect of a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice on plaque formation, gingivitis and gingival bleeding: a six-month study." The Journal of Clinical Dentistry (1995): 6 (Special Issue):
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Incident at the Construction Company - Essay Example A report of the accident was furnished soon after. Because of the injuries he sustained Mohammed requested for a one-week leave. He suffered a mild head injury, plus wounds and bruises to his elbows and legs. He also experienced persistent lightheadedness after the accident. Because he was not able to go to work for the duration of time, he lost an income. The company immediately accepted legal liability and cooperated with OSHA representatives. Mohammed was given $7,000 accident compensation with regard to his occupational injuries and loss of income. Ã Mohammed soon recovered from his injuries and started looking for another work. But because of his specialization and experience, he was not able to make it outside of the construction industry. Another construction company hired him as a fitter. On August 1997 Mohammed was working with other workers at a height of more or less 25-30 feet, tightening top covers of a massive boiler. In order to access the top portion of the boiler, he uses a ladder. Unfortunately, one of the covers had a crack which made it difficult for Mohammed to tighten. Thus, he applied excessive force to tighten the cracked cover. Yet, while he did so, the bottom of the ladder slipped and he fell to the floor. Mohammed sustained back injuries, plus a spinal fracture and wounds to his hips and legs. He was forced to take an indefinite leave to recover but, because of the severity of his injuries and wounds, he was not able to go back to work for the construction company and had to look for a less labor-inten sive occupation. This second occupational accident left Mohammed with permanently limited physical activity and currently necessitates help with tasks he could do independently in the past, like woodwork and farming.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Project management case study e - Essay Example The ministry of health and family planning began pursuing a nation with a sustainable population since the year 1990. Implementation of many projects to achieve a reduce fertility rate were carried out, the activities include inauguration of family planning day, the distribution of contraceptives, and public health awareness. The project carried out in the most expected successful way turned ineffective for fifteen years. The reason behind the explanation included, facts that Malagasy women despised the use of family planning with only two percent using the service by 2005 and in Kenya in AIDS testing initiatives (Sylvester n.d). World Bank sponsored a program where the rapid results approach implementation required undertaking by Robinson implementation strategy. The implementation carried out to reduce rice shortage in the country; unfortunately, it spiked riots in the country. The project received less success, but after revision, through a consultation with the rapid result initi ative team the government reached n amicable solution. Lalao or Norolaolao Rakotondrafara known as the director of family planning in Madagascar. Rapid result mainly initiative used in the implementation of the objective, where the san of the project remained at 60-120 days. The projected required implementation in three phases ; phase one include the prelaunch of the project, while phase two consisted of the launching process, lastly, phase three composed of the implementation process. The ideas behind any phase designed to reduce the chances of barriers to optimal performance of the project (Nadim& Morgan, 2011). Pre-Launch, the creation of ownership and engagement According to the progress of the initiative, the citizens of Madagascar were unable to make progress but required assistance from an external source. The reason behind the explanation was that the citizens had a gap in knowledge and techniques as a whole. The people of Madagascar stubbornness to accept change and abilit ies derailed of rapid result initiative. The reason behind the explanation was that the donor provided an explanation where implementation was unachievable or complex. The plan of the implementation of such projects consisted complex processes that encompassed difficult procedures that lacked implementation. The reluctance of public workers to implement the project based on lack of additional pay. The problem of the project implementation received resistance from the managerial staff, as they required credit. The prelaunch of the project faced many controversies. Managerial staff led by Lalao, least believed in the implementation of rapid result initiative. The committee including the rapid initiative result coach and Lalao resulted in rapid result initiative implementation in Madagascar. The implementation received criticism from many, but the two worked for a mutual interactive position (Kleim & Ludin, 2012). Launch: team commitments The implementation of raid initiative approach in Madagascar received attacks from many believing that the objectives lacked sense. The launch of the initiative had two objectives where one required achievement in less than a hundred days. The government emphasis required the support of application of country knowledge and experience as well as identification of opportunities. The government f Madagascar preferred autonomy and
Friday, August 23, 2019
Personal Resourcing and Development - Essay Example After the implementation of active workplace programme at Ginsters, a survey highlighted that the workers in the organisation engage with the company and assume pride in doing their work. This is an indication of increased motivation in comparison to the prior years. Despite the fact that the employees of Ginsters stood and worked for long hours, a fitness test conducted by the Caradon Council found them to be unfit (Hudson, 2010). This made the company employ a fitness coordinator on fulltime basis and purchased a gym in an existing building. This was an incentive or reward to the workers. The manager of Ginsters acknowledged that the workers had been convinced to participate in the different activities within the organization. At Ginsters, the motivational theory that can be applied to the situation of employees is the expectancy theory. According to this theory, the employees perform their work in a hard and smart way whenever they believe that their additional efforts would resul t into rewards that are valuable (Pinder, 2008). This is evidenced at Ginsters when a gym is introduced in the existing building of the organisation to offer exercises to the workers. The expectancy theory of motivation highlights that increased output would be given by the equation; Motivational or effort force = Expectancy (Instrumentality x Valence) (Pinder, 2008). In this case effort force implies the force expended by the employees in achieving the performance that is desired. Expectancy is the belief that any force or effort would lead to a required performance level (Mitchell, 2003). On the other hand, instrumentality implies the thought that the needed performance will lead to an outcome that is desired and... From this paper it is clear thatÃ Ginsters company is a winner of the World Leisure 2008 innovation award and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ active workplace employee programme wellness has experienced significant results.Ã This essay stresses thatÃ the company failed to have a firm a stand on its employer. Despite the fact that this company provides a significant amount of career opportunity for individuals, the company experiences various challenges. About 18 % of the 450-workforce strongholds were obtained fromÃ individuals with minority backgrounds. These people were constantly resisting the chances to be integratedÃ into the company team. The day and night shifts did not mix and the different production areas mistrusted each other. An annual survey study established that the morale of the workers was low. After the implementation of active workplace programme at Ginsters, a survey highlighted that the workers in the organisation engage with the company and assume pride in doing their work. This is an indication of increased motivation in comparison to the prior years. Despite the fact that the employees of Ginsters stood and worked for long hours, a fitness test conducted by the Caradon Council found them to be unfit.Ã Instrumentality implies the thought that the needed performance will lead to an outcome that is desired and valence is the employees outcome value. The active workplace programme implementation at Ginsters, was an aspect of expectancy theory.
Short answers about Introduction to Political Economy - Essay Example In a bid to take over the market, firms enhance internal efficiency, adopt new technologies, invest in innovations, and reduce inefficiency on managerial level (Office of Fair Trading 6). In the economic systems that are based on free markets, the latter are major determinants of market outcomes. In the situation when the market failure occurs because of the fact that this marketÃ¢â¬â¢s quality, price, or quantity do not meet established social welfare norms, economic regulation is used. Its major aim is to prevent market failure. It is desirable since it prevents the market failure (Jacobs & Rapoport 353). The major difference between capture theory and public interest theory is that the latter believes that regulation is inherently effective: it leads to the society getting better off. By contrast, capture theories assert that regulation works in the interest of a particular group which has succeeded in making its case to some regulatory agency or some legislative body (Hovenkamp 133) In his Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx lists 10 steps needed to destroy the system of free enterprise and replace it with system of all-powerful governmental rule. This will bring in the communist state. These steps of 10 Planks of The Communist Manifesto are 1) abolition of private property and giving all land rents for public use; 2) a heavy progressive (or graduated) income tax; 3) abolition of rights of inheritance; 4) property confiscation from all rebels and emigrants; 5) centralization of credit in the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s hands through national bank; 6) centralization all transportation and communications in the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s hands; 7) factoriesÃ¢â¬â¢ extension; waste landsÃ¢â¬â¢ cultivation; 8) equal liability of all people to labor; 9) agriculture and manufacture combination, as well as equitable population distribution around the country; 10) free education in all public schools (Sims 194). The earliest position in the timeline of
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Business Ethics Essay As we have discussed the ethical issued related to production and distribution of wine, we will now focus on the ethical issues relating to the consumption of wine. The consumption of wine in U. S. has been on the rise since last fifteen years. The U. S. ranks 34th in wine consuming nations with wine consumption of 7. 69 liters per capita per annum. The consumption of wine in 1994 was 404 million gallons which increased to 658 million gallons in the year 2008. These figures show the growing popularity of wine in U. S. Consumption grew 2. 5% per annum. As capita income per person has increased, the wine consumption has also seen a increasing trend. According to U. S. Beverage Marketing Corporation, the organic wine consumption have rise in last few years. As people are getting environmental and health conscious, they are turning towards organic products. In 2003/04, organic wine consumption was about 6. 5% of total beverage market in U. S. , which increased to 9. 5% in the year 2007/08. This signifies the important aspect of change in the human nature that is turning to the products which is beneficial to both humans and environment. The type of wine customer consumes depends on the number of factors namely per capita income, household size, preference of quality over price etc. The nutrition facts of wine are minimal. There is no cholesterol or fat present in the wine. Generally, the alcohol content ranges in between 10-15%. Over consumption of wine can be dangerous to health as it can cause unconsciousness and high blood pressure. Nutrition Facts (Serving Size 6 oz) Amount per serving| Red Wine| White Wine| Calories| 123| 115| Protein| . 28 grams| . 14 grams| Cholesterol | 0| 0| Sodium | 8. 5 milligrams| 8. 5 milligrams| Carbohydrates| 2. 9 grams| 1. 35 grams| Vitamin B1(Thiamin)| . 01 %| . 01 %| Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)| . 05 %| . 01 %| Vitamin B3 (Niacin)| . 13 %| . 12 %| Organic wine is the wine produced from organically grown grapes without adding any sulfites. Organic wine is the best quality wine obtained without relying on chemical fertilizers. The most important aspect of producing organic wine is the matching of unique characteristics of growing region with the most suitable variety of grapes. Different varieties of grapes need different soil and climate to grow. Usually, warm and dry climates are suitable for growing quality grapes and these climates protect the grapes against moulds and other diseases resulting from humid climate. The smaller sized grapes are suitable and desired for the production of organic wine because we get the distinctive taste for a particular wine from grapeÃ¢â¬â¢s skin and the smaller grapes has high skin to juice ratio as compared to the large sized grapes. But the yield per field of small sized grapes is considerably low, which increase the cost of production per unit volume. The grapes in the organic vineyard are usually handpicked which allows only the ripest and healthiest grapes to be picked up. This process also minimizes the damage to the soil and the fruit. This accounts for the difference in taste of the wine. But this handpicking of grapes increase the labor costs. Low yield and handpicking of grapes, along with other factors, increase the overall production costs. Thus, organic wine is generally expensive than the regular wine. It is far better in quality and taste than the regular cheap wine. The consumption of organic wine has effect on the environment. As the grapes have been grown naturally, no pesticides or insecticide had been used and re-plantation of oak trees to replace the cut oak trees helps in preserving the nature and benefits the world around us by preserving the soil and help reducing the pollution to both air and soil. It helps maintain the balance of nature. The organic wine production is an ethical business process. Nobody feels cheated in this process, as the customer gets the quality products for the dollars he/she spends and know what he is getting as there is no deception on the labels, and the producer get the return for following the sincere ethical processes. Customers get the value for the money spent as they get high quality wine with distinctive taste. On the other hand, the producer earns enough to cover his costs of production and also makes a profit. The environment is also saved through this ethical business practices which is the biggest gain. On the other hand, the regular wine can be produced with the large sized grapes and the insecticides and pesticides are used on a large scale. As the yield of large grapes is more, the cost of production per unit volume is low. This results in lower prices. The regular wine is pretty cheap and available in abundance qualities. Thus, it is affordable to people with low income. It is cost friendly to both the wine producers and the customers. Wine producers can adopt mass production of the regular wine as the production costs are low and there are no special regulations to be followed, this result in increased profits. Customers are also attracted to the low- priced wine as they have to spend less and get their wine desire satisfied with this low priced regular wine as compared to costly organic wine. But there are consequences of drinking cheap wine. The production of regular wine has an adverse effect on the environment. As the consumption of regular wine is increasing, so does the adverse effects. The use of unlimited pesticides, insecticides and other chemicals not only pollute the soil but also the air we breathe. It even spoils the water bed beneath the soil. The deforestation of the oak trees is rapidly increasing. The effects are adverse than we could even think and they are long termed/ lived. The cheap wine could have health consequences too. The sulfites present in the wine can degrade personÃ¢â¬â¢s health. The cheap wine has much higher sulfur content than expensive organic wines. The consumption of this cheap wine could results in allergies, breathing problems, skin rashes, itches and nausea. Overindulgence of wine can raise the blood pressure which could be harmful. In the recent years, the genetically engineering wine production is on the rise. It is the method of wine production using the gene altered grapes. The genetically engineered vineyards are more resistant to the fungal diseases than the traditional vineyards. The main motive behind the genetical engineering is to make vineyards more resistant to diseases and increase the output of grapes. The researched concluded that these disease resistant plants would need very less pesticides, thus lowering the use of pesticide in production process. This is really beneficial for the environment. But it is feared that the genetically altered genes may result in uniformity of taste of different wines. But according to the reports; people have not accepted the genetically engineered wine. They have rejected the concept of genetically engineered wine as the fears of taste uniformity have raised concerns. According to the report by Greenpeace, California wine makers may have to face mass consumer rejection if they accepted the genetically engineered grapes for their wine production process. British retailers have also threatened California wine makers to quit importing their wine if they adopted the genetically engineered wine making process. Fact is that, Britain is the largest importer of California wine as it imports 30% of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s wine. Researchers have found out that the gene which is inserted into the wine grapes create a protein similar to that present in the bee venom. This could cause anaphylactic shock in some people and can also create other health issues. This deadly substance could not be put out the production process of the genetically engineered wine.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Social Work Methods and Theories This essay will consist of four main parts. In part one; the essay will give a brief introduction and history to social work theories and methods. Moving forward the essay will look at the importance and value of theories and methods in relation to social work and how it informs practice. Throughout, reference will be made to the most popular theorist. Part two will consider how social work theories and methods can be successfully applied in the drug and alcohol field. Given an overview of this, it will be necessary to demonstrate how two social work methods are chosen, and applied, in the intervention of an example case study. Where applicable, contributions from service users will be used to bring more insight and balance to the essay. Part three will be an analysis of a social work method used in the example case study. From the method, the essay will explore and evaluate, in depth, the way it underpins anti-discriminatory practice. Part four of this essay will conclude with a reflection on how the student has gained a valuable knowledge base throughout the module and assignment. This reflection will also show how the student will use this knowledge base in practice. No reflection would be complete without a concise look at how reflective practice can play a vital part of future social work practice. An initial risk assessment was carried out by the referral worker, in the vein of a questioning model to identify possible risks and dangers to staff and other service users, however as discussed by Smale, Tuson and Statham (2000) taking a strengths based approach would allow referral workers and key workers to work as collaborators, facilitating service users to identify needs and outcomes. During intervention with Mr AB sessions, in the form of an exchange model, were carried out endeavoring that further assessment became a process of dialogue rather than just a fact finding mission with the exchanging of ideas and information. This approach is compatible with the framework of task centered practice, appropriate with this intervention (Ford Postle, 2000) Key work sessions started with Mr AB and from the outset the process was explained and the objectives made clear, it was also explained to Mr AB that due to company policies, and his terms and conditions of stay in the night shelter, these sessions were time limited so a positive ending to the professional relationship was hoped for. It was also considered that this approach would reduce the power imbalance in the relationship; however the power will never be fully balanced when working within legislative and multi agency procedures (Parker Bradley, 2008) However as stated by Dalymple Burke (2000) it is necessary to endeavour to empower rather then disempowere with the need to balance power relationships. In this instance this can be evidenced by the written agreements in the form of the assessment and support plan . Weekly key worker sessions agreed to by Mr AB provided further support as required and opportunity to review whether desired outcomes were being achieved, as in the National Occupational Standards Key Role and outlined by Supporting People and the agency policy and procedures (ODPM, 2004). (Walker Beckett, 2007). It is also necessary to not only collect information as part of the key worker sessions but to balance findings in order to produce an overall analysis of risks and need (Walker Beckett, 2007). Throughout the assessment procedure it is necessary to be aware of the influences of ethics, power, and professionalism along with anti- oppressive practice. Middleton (1997) states that in order to empower, it is necessary to respect the individual, enhance their strengths and coping abilities. It is therefore vital that key worker sessions be conducted with a non judgmental attitude. While acknowledging the key worker has different values and status to Mr AB showing acceptance to people in all situations can be difficult however as stated in by Carl Rogers (1951, 1961) the human psychologist the person should show they are genuine, and portray empathy and warmth. It become apparent as key worker sessions continued that Mr AB was reluctant to engage with this service as he was in pre contemplation (Denial) (Prowchaska Di Clamentis 1996). However, the threat of eviction if he did not adhere to his conditions of stay was a considerable worry to Mr AB as was the thought of becoming homeless and having to sleep rough. It is very important to remember that as key working intervenes in the lives of vulnerable people these people have the right not to be victims of untested and possible harmful interventions. This confirms the need of understanding how theory relates to practice and learning from research and evidence based practice (Rutter, 2006) This confirms Maslow (1970) who shows in his hierarchy of need, that before higher needs can be met basic needs are required to be in place. Therefore to allow Mr AB to move forward in his life he requires support to start a procces to put these needs in place (Giddens, 2006). Mr AB during his key work sessions discussed his feelings and it was felt by him that no opportunities were open to him and that he was struggling against a society that was oppressive and keeping him down. It was pointed out to Mr AB that his position in society was that of a lifestyle choice, that society is changing to support people to progress and that choices were open to him (Giddens, 2006) ). It is however necessary to acknowledge as stated by Bronfenbrenner (1979) that different levels of society will influence the individuals life course. Also stated by Jack and Jack (2000) individuals are products of their environment and can never be fully understood separately from one another. As stated by Crawford Walker (2005) transitions have the potential to be stressful even those that are planned and welcomed. As the intervention process progressed and the support plan auctioned positive outcomes including building on self confidence which led to Mr AB seeking and securing part time employment Doel (1994) states that service user motivation may weaken and it was therefore important to continue supporting and encouraging Mr ABS interest and commitment to work. By adopting a model that worked with service users strengths helped to ensure that an anti oppressive focus was maintained. . Using task centered practice as discussed by Ford Postle (2009) goals were set which would support the researching and attending of courses which provide basic computer skills, with the attainment of each goal aimed to promote self-confidence and further motivation (Rooney Larsen, 1997). Subsequently in this instance the planned ending and outcomes have not been realized, with events determining an alternate course of action (Walker Beckett, 2007). The first part of this essay will lookÃâÃ at the relationship between social work methods and substance abuse Denial can also be explained as a defence mechanism whichÃâÃ is establishedÃâÃ by aÃâÃ person when there is aÃâÃ dangerÃâÃ that heÃâÃ or she will become aware of or actÃâÃ onÃâÃ unconsciousÃâÃ primitive impulses that areÃâÃ unacceptableÃâÃ (Freud, 1967). ). Knatz (1999) states that denial is a defense mechanism by which individuals are able to cope with unpleasant realities. Be aware that the term alcoholism implies disease/condition.ÃâÃ IfÃâÃ youÃâÃ use the term alcoholism in assignments, be sure toÃâÃ establishÃâÃ that youÃâÃ meanÃâÃ to say alcoholism and not alcohol dependency ). IfÃâÃ youÃâÃ useÃâÃ generalÃâÃ references around statistics on alcohol, try to refer to British statistics, you could use National Treatment Agency website reports, Office of National Statistics (ONS), NICE guidelines on treatment of alcoholÃâÃ dependencyÃâÃ for British/UK data, all available on line LetsÃâÃ giveÃâÃ theÃâÃ wordÃâÃ relationshipÃâÃ a different definition from the dictionaries, forÃâÃ unlocking theÃâÃ meaningÃâÃ of theÃâÃ wordÃâÃ often leadsÃâÃ to greater understanding.ÃâÃ -ÃâÃ tooÃâÃ colloquial, would be better to state, The word relationship has varied definitions from different sources of literature. Conflict is aÃâÃ partÃâÃ of most every interpersonal relationship.ÃâÃ ThereforeÃâÃ it could be stated that managing conflict,ÃâÃ is importantÃâÃ if the relationship is to beÃâÃ long-lastingÃâÃ and rewarding.ÃâÃ Jason and Beth have numerous conflicts and barriers which prevent them from having a more effective relationship.ÃâÃ Interpersonal relationships and communication (is a two-way street), too colloquial, say have mutuality Beth and Jason seemÃâÃ to rarely communicateÃâÃ between each other, aÃâÃ furtherÃâÃ factor which appears to contribute to the disintegration of their relationship. It can give rise to greater anxiety, depression,ÃâÃ insomnia, and general distress, reducedÃâÃ self-esteemÃâÃ andÃâÃ confidence, and sometimes disrupted family relationsÃâÃ ((Fryer,1992;Jahoda,1982). Bibliography Barber, G (2002) Social work with addiction.ÃâÃ Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire Berger, G. (1993), Alcoholism and theÃâÃ family.ÃâÃ New York: Franklin Watts Conville, Richard (1998) The meaning of relationship in interpersonal communication.ÃâÃ Praeger Publications.ÃâÃ Califonia. Heider, Fritz (1958) The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations.ÃâÃ LawrenceÃâÃ ErlbaumÃâÃ associates Jahoda, M (1982) Employment and Unemployment (The Psychology of Social Issues).ÃâÃ Cambridge University Press Knatz, H (1999) Getting on Oxford Books.Oxford Levinger, G. (1983).ÃâÃ Development and change.ÃâÃ Freeman and Company.San Francisco. Manstead, Antony S. R. and Miles Hewstone (1996).ÃâÃ The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology.ÃâÃ Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. Maslow, Abraham.(1954) Motivation and personality.ÃâÃ Harper and Row, New York. Steele, CM (1985) TheÃâÃ psychologyÃâÃ of drunken excess.ÃâÃ London Press, London. West, Robert (2001) TheÃâÃ theoryÃâÃ of addiction.ÃâÃ Blackwell publishing, Oxford. The principle areas of social , administration and social workstudies include health issues and administration, employment services,community care, housing needs, crime prevention, disability checks,unemployment concerns, mental health, old age as well as social issues of raceor gender and poverty (Drake, 2001). Social work practice focuses on dealing with the problems of service users. The maintenance and improvement of their social, physical, and mental states is often dependent upon the effectiveness of social work intervention. (Miller, 2005) ÃâÃ Providing appropriatesocial services is an important target of social care policy and social policyin general (Adams, 2003). Welfare is general well being of individualsand when provided by the State, refers to a form of social security or social protectionthat aims to protect people from conditions such as sickness, ill health,diseases and poverty (Malin et al 2002) Social work practice has, over the years, become integral to Britains working life and current estimates put the number of active social workers in the country at significantly more than one million. (Parrott, 2002) Social work practice focuses on dealing with the problems of service users. The maintenance and improvement of their social, physical, and mental states is often dependent upon the effectiveness of social work intervention. (Miller, 2005) Users of social work services are largely economically and/or socially disadvantaged, and the vulnerabilities, which arise from these circumstances, frequently contribute to the nature of their relationships with service providers. (Miller, 2005) Social work makes use of a broad range of knowledge and incorporates information obtained from several disciplines; it empowers social workers in practice to use their acquired knowledge and skills first to engage service users and then to bring about positive changes in undesirable emotional states and behavioural attitudes, or in positions of social disempowerment. (Miller, 2005) ÃâÃ Social work makes use of a range of skills, methods, and actions that are aligned to its holistic concentration on individuals and their environments. (Harris, 2002) Counselling, whilst being a catch-all term, used for describing of various professions, is, an important component of social work practice. (Rowland, 1993) Specific counselling approaches have been developed to assist people with problems related to substance abuse, gluttony and for giving up smoking. (Pease Fook, 1999) In some areas of counselling, which deal with addiction, for example, with users of hard drugs, counsellors engaged in social work practice, function side by side, with sets of legal restrictions and moral issues. (Pease Fook, 1999)ÃâÃ
Monday, August 19, 2019
"Negro writers must accept the nationalist implications of their lives, not in order to encourage them, but in order to change and transcend them. They must accept the concept of nationalism because, in order to transcend it, they must posses and understand it." -- Richard Wright In 1996, famed rapper and entertainer Tupac Shakur was gunned down in Las Vegas. Journalistic sentiment at the time suggested he deserved the brutal death. The New York Times headline, "Rap Performer Who Personified Violence, Dies," suggested Shakur, who was twenty five when he died, deserved his untimely death. - (Pareles, 1996) A product of a fatherless home, raised poor in the ghettos of San Francisco, Shakur, notes Ernest Harding of the L.A. Weekly, "lived in a society that still didn't view him a[s] human, that projected his worst fears onto him; [so] he had to decide whether to battle that or embrace it." (Hardy, 1996) As these fears forced Shakur into a corner, Shakur, in the music magazine Vibe, alludes to his own interior battle noting "there's two nigga's inside me," adding "one wants to live in peace, and the other won't die unless he's free." (All Eyes on Him, 1996) While many of his lyrics sensationalized gang violence and ghetto politics, dramatizing the murder of fe llow African Americans and, especially, police officers, he also labored over trying to come to grips with African American self-realization, breaking free from imposed societal chains. Unfortunately, as Barry Glassner muses in his book The Culture of Fear (1999), Ã¯ ¿ ½it seems to me at once sad, inexcusable, and entirely symptomatic of the culture of fear that the only version of Tupac Shakur many Americans knew was a frightening and unidimensional caricature.Ã¯ ¿ ½ (127) In o... ...ttman, S. (2001). What Bigger Killed For: Rereading Violence Against Women in Native Son. Texas Studies in Literature and Language 43.2 , 169-193. Hardy, E. (1996, September 20). Do Thug Niggaz Go to Heaven? L.A. Weekly , p. 51. Lena, J. C. (2006). Social Context and Musical Content of Rap Music, 1979-1995. Social Forces 85.1 , 479-495. Pareles, J. (1996, September 12). Tupac Shakur, 25, Rap Performer Who Personified Violence, Dies. New York Times , pp. A1, 34. Saddik, A. J. (2003). Rap's Unruly Body: The Postmodern Performance of Black Male Identity On the American Stage. The Drama Review 47.4 , 110-127. Shakur, Tupac. "Words of Wisdom, Crooked Ass Nigga." 2pacalypse Now. 1991. Shakur, Tupac. "God Bless the Dead." Greatest Hits. 1998. Wright, R. (1940 Reissued in Harper Perennial Modern Classics in 2005). Native Son. New York: HarperCollins.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are constant struggles between gender, identity, commodification, and class. Among the men and women in many African tribes that still exist today, there are divergences, which will always remain intact because of the culture and the way in which they are taught to treat each other. Chinua Achebe wrote the novel, Things Fall Apart, which is a great piece of African literature that deals with the Igbo culture, history, and the taking over of African lands by British colonization. The ongoing gender conflict is a prominent theme in Things Fall Apart presenting the clash between men and women of the African Igbo society. Throughout history, from the beginning of time to today, women have frequently been viewed as inferior, menÃ¢â¬â¢s possessions whose sole purpose was to satisfy the menÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Maybe it's because men are physically stronger than women and have always had the ability to control them that way. In Things Fall Apart, the Igbo women were p erceived as being weak. They received little or no respect in the Igbo society and were harshly abused. The recurring theme of gender conflicts helps drive the novel Things Fall Apart by showing how important women are to the men, yet they do not receive the treatment they deserve. Women have many responsibilities in the Igbo society such as having children, cooking, cleaning, and farming. These are important function for women, yet they are not given much credit or meaning for their existence in the roles they fill. As Rose Ure Mezu points out Ã¢â¬Å"The world in Things Fall Apart is one in which patriarchy intrudes oppressively into every sphere of existence. It is an andocentric world where the man is everything and the woman nothing.Ã¢â¬ In some way Mezu is correct in saying that the man is everything and the woman nothing. The man holds the highest importance of the family and it is he who holds the titles. In Things Fall Apart, the reader follows the troubles of the main character Okonkwo, a tragic hero whose flaw includes the fact that "his whole life was dominated by fear, the fear of failure and of weakness" (2865). For Okonkwo, his father Unoka was the essence of failure and weakness.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The U.S. should build a wall between itself and Mexico, topped with razor wire. This is about toughening immigration laws and the strict enforcement of laws already widely discussed.The building is a two thousand-mile-long fence would cost about 680 (m) million dollars, and it would slow border crossings. It is for the idea of candidates running for president to have clear and aggressive plans for dealing with immigration.It also gives the idea of doing something that might actually work to stop illegal aliens from flooding into the United States is actually drawing great interest. It won't go away. Illegal immigration is not just impacting the Border States. Illegal aliens are showing up everywhere. Constitutionally it is a Federal responsibility to protect the 50 states from invasion and as a practical matter it is impacting all of us.Background:Ã¢â¬Å"For those people who do not live in the U.S. of America or have not heard about it, U.S.A. government has decided to construct a wa ll along the border of Mexico to attempt to keep out illegal and MS13 clan members. The MS13 is a dangerous clan that specializes in smuggling drugs and people across borders and has made their way from Columbia to Northern Mexico and intend to get into The U.S. of America.Also, there have been reports of the AL Qaida attempting to get the MS13 to smuggle THEMSELVES into the U.S. of A. so they can continue their reign of terror. The Mexican government feels that it is unnecessary that there is building a wall and have started comparing President Bush to Hitler because of the Berlin wall.Personally think that the wall should be built to protect American from the MS13 and to control the amount of illegally migrating to the U.S. of America (Ã¢â¬Å"All to Protect the InnocentÃ¢â¬ .Tue January 24 2006 20:02. http://forums.ubi.com)Ã¢â¬ .Immigrant or a refugee rights groups across the country are now moving in the direction of putting immigration in the context of a global economy, glo balization, and people on the move escaping poverty, hunger, civil war, and persecution. NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement) kicked off that trend.When it was testified at the NAFTA hearings that Mexican and Aliens complained of why they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t including immigration in the context of a financial free trade agreement. Why were they focusing on the free movement of merchandise but not on the free movement of people? Basically it's a labor issue.California has always been impacted tremendously by immigration, not just by people from Mexico. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s now estimated even by the INS (Immigration and Naturalization Service) that there are at least five million immigrants in the U.S. who are undocumented. California usually comes in with at least half of those immigrants, not only because of its juxtaposition to Baja California, but also it's a place where people can blend into cities like L.A. and San Francisco. There's about nine million in these cities and about a t hird are immigrants and refugees.It is important that it begins addressing immigration within the context of a global economy. Globalization affects the United States because investments in other countries have impacts such as people leaving that country, the displacement of jobs, jobs moving in and out of a country.Primarily focuses on human rights and nowhere is human rights more impacted than on the U.S.-Mexico border. These have really been a hateful time for Americans especially with the shooting incident by the military.Right after that, other military operations were exposed, including here inCalifornia where National Guard troops have been out in camouflage, hiding in the brush on the pretext of looking for drugs and immigrants. In addition, there has been introduced legislation in the House to send 10,000 military troops in to California.This is in addition to 5,000 Border Patrol agents approved by Congress. That's going to interrupt a lot of movement. It could eventually i nterfere with free trade because how long will Mexico put up with this confrontation by the military on the border.Going back to history, the U.S. contracted with Mexicans to come to work here in the '30s and '40s and '50s. Then the xenophobia started, the scapegoat, and you had massive raids and deportations of hundreds of thousands of Mexicans. U.S. citizens and legal residents as well as undocumented were all sent to Mexico in the '30s and '40s and '50s.During '50s, operation wetback, and even though I'm a fifth generation U.S. citizen, right on these streets around here I used to be stopped on the way home from school, or visiting my girlfriend, or going downtown. The police used to smack me up against the wall and call the Border Patrol. They get used to do in at least every other week. They used to take out of jobs, after school jobs, in restaurants, hotels by among Mexicans
Lauren LeeÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã February 25, 2013 English 101Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Mr. Simmes Exemplification Essay To possess a human body, transcendental powers, and victory over evil villains are only a few characteristics of a superhero. These traits are the personification of what society has indicated to be the perfect man; or, depending on which superhero, a woman.Many superhero fans begin as children and often remain intrigued into adulthood; from wearing their uniform, to owning every one of their movies, to becoming a superhero, themselves. However, becoming a superhero is an obvious impossibility. These supernatural beings have the ability to fly, master the intelligence of villains, lift the heaviest objects, and jump off the highest buildings with no harm being done. It is the ideals of becoming someone great, which superheroes portray, that influence children and enhance their yearning to imitate the superheroÃ¢â¬â¢s image and actions.A superheroÃ¢â¬â¢s immense strength, chiseled toned body, and sharp intelligence are a few attributes that provoke fans to admire and idolize these beings. Many parents believe that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressive behavior is uncontrollable but it is also a result from the vigorously powerful superheroes that act as role models to children as they are growing up. Superheroes incredible strength has led them to victory over the biggest and strongest of enemies.I interviewed my acquaintance, Jon Wall, a senior at McNeese State University, who has an admiration for Superman, and he said, Ã¢â¬Å"From watching Superman, I thought I could prove my strength by defeating other kids. This did not mean that I went and tried to beat everyone up. Instead, I tried to be better than others at everything. I would try to hang on the monkey bars the longest, be the person who got picked first for any sport, and wrestle anyone to submission. Ã¢â¬ he continued, Ã¢â¬Å"Although my behavior sometimes got too aggressive, and got me in trouble, it always seemed to make me feel like more of man. JonÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation is one of many children who have set their standard of being a real man or woman based on the strength and accomplishments of a superhero. Achieving victories that a superhero has demonstrated has caused many fans to feel as an accomplished being, finally worthy to be called a real woman or man. Superheroe s also tend to possess a perfect physique that enhances their powerful ability to conquer and defeat evil. They always have a defined figure, toned muscle in every area, and, usually, six-pack abs. Although physical image is more of an interest with teenagers and adults, this does have an effect on children, too.These role models that children are introduced to hold a nearly impossible figure for all children to achieve. It is from these images that communicate to kids that being overweight and lacking strength is unacceptable. This aspect is a contribution to children mistreating other children who do not hold to this idolized standard. My friend Jon stated, Ã¢â¬Å"I fell into the trap of mocking others, who were not perfect, when I was a kid. I also remember trying to hide any blemish of my own body, so that I would not become a victim of the scorn [from other children]Ã¢â¬ .JonÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of feeling pressure to maintain a certain physical image exemplifies the cases of many superhero fans. Children are feeling pressure to portray a certain image in order to achieve self-security and acceptance from others instead of having a healthy mentality regarding food and exercise. Aside from all physical traits of a superhero, they also portray a strong sense of intelligence. It requires mass strategy and mental knowledge to defeat evil villains and their deceptive ways. Superheroes encounter many difficult and seemingly impossible challenges and manage to take them head on without any evidence of fear.Breann, a classmate in my English 101 class, stated, Ã¢â¬Å"I think that the intelligence of a superhero is extremely influential because they are faced against evil villains, who are known for their intelligence and strategic ways, and superheroes always end up defeating themÃ¢â¬ she continued, Ã¢â¬Å"When children see the knowledge of a superhero portrayed in their planning of defeat against their enemies and them achieve victory, it is a positive influ ence for the children to try their hardest in school to gain an education to be able to plan, have broad knowledge, and defeat, as well. Intelligence holds a large role in the world and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s likelihood of reaching success. Intelligence is a positive attribute that superheroes portray when their knowledge and skill is shown through their preparation and process of defeating evil. A characteristic of all superheroes is their great achievement. Superheroes are constantly saving the world and others from harm.They have great impacts on the way most children that admired them grew up. Whether it was Batman, Wonder Woman, or some other supernatural being, they all had a lot to say about what it means to be a man or woman. Even if the ideals portrayed are imaginative beings, a superheroes image has the ability to influence any child. Works Cited Wall, Jon. Personal interview. February 22, 2013. Debarge, Breann. Personal Interview. February 22, 2013.