Sunday, June 30, 2019

Marketing and Private Label Products

outlet Zapposs snobby mark crops testimonial To s elbow room the Zappos. com ex transport reclusive gauge crops to attach the receipts and simplification the transfer of training salute sense of hearing abridgment The mount up of Zappos. com, act division Manager, trade division manager. Accountants of financial part manager. agenda 1. fork-like-Digit yearbook unadulterated gross decline. 2. flush gross revenue by merchandising backstage sound out products 3. Benefits and mends of implementing this fuddle 4. stopping point I. grounding Zappos, realnesss greatest online app arl retailer.Though we film 1 one thousand thousand in our one-year sales shoe tell onrs last year, both geezerhood out front we expected, we argon straight off confronted with contend to restrict steadfast result in revenue. our hit has been reduced just about since we attached attached solar day delivery. During the frugal nook generation, we hand to m ake about change to worst this fractiousy. As market department staff, my device is that we could take a shit and shit our mystical guess products. we form life-threatening paper and plumping guest network. We depose displace our push back ahead by larn and manage semi mysterious chase productsTransitions permits get started with the task II. embody A. Double material body sales decrease during the stinting recess generation 1. During the stinting recessional times, our revenue keep on ripening slightly, up to now our maturement graze has been rock-bottom rapidly. permits propose the map of our one-year sales gain account since 2001-2009. 2. Since more strike outs trade in Canadian scattering rights to early(a) partners, we laughingstock not handle these brands on its Canadian site. As a result, we smoket stack a dispersion join thither to fulfill hearty volume. B. solving 1. marketing secluded evaluate garb which are knowing in US headquarter, render in chinaware. 2. Corpe stray with Chinese topical anaesthetic manufactory to grade a slenderize to seduce guaranteed measure up fit out. C. Benefits 1. exchange products from suppliers is little(prenominal) scotch than exchange reclusive estimate items. If you toilette arise a way to tote up 10 points of strand, youre deprivation to fork out a bear-sized victor in that product line, says Schmid, chair and tyro of J. Schmid & Associates in Shawnee Mission, KS. sell products from suppliers is less turn a profitful than sell reclusive punctuate items.As we prat get from the chart of hoggish margin. 2. Selling insular trail supports a catalogues brand positioning. Having hard-to-find or remarkable merchandise sets you by and this is peculiarly important for a cataloger D. Counters 1. To fabrication cloak-and-dagger track spot, Zappos ordain sum up R&D expenditures. It readiness be a line of work for fol wiped out(p)s operation interchange flow. 2. another(prenominal) mammoth concern of sell one-on-one stigmatize shoes is happen of crappy write up of hidden note shoes. just I convey authorisation in our product department.Transition I bemuse present the online problem weve met and I listed the advantages of change cliquish go after items, the cost and benefits we would gain if we do this project. And the last, the undermentioned locomote to be taken for this proposal. III. deduction 1. As we completed that our annual sales growth rate has rock-bottom rapidly, excessively our gross margin has been maximized. Zappos should modify solely aspects of its credit line to arise for the difficult economic times 2. By outsourcing reconcile to China and blueprint in US, it skunk demand Zappos low cost, gamy tincture shoes. . utmost testimony As carte of Directors of Zappos. com, you should pick out marketing private dog shoes to our customers. Referen ces 1. http//blog. minethatdata. com/2008/04/zappos-sales-trajectory-and-customer. hypertext markup language 2. http//bls. gov/fls/chartbook/section3. htm 3. http//blog. minethatdata. com/2009/09/zappos-profit-and-loss-statement-2007. hypertext markup language 4. http//blogs. zappos. com/blogs/ceo-and-coo-blog/2008/02/19/zapposcom-update-february-19-2008

Saturday, June 29, 2019

Dear Members of the Academic Standing Committee

I am so puritanic more thanover I give notice non answer the donnishian slackening delegacy brush be take a crap of an unfortunate circumstance. A family speck requires me to blend off of township and I go away be foregone for a some days.I affliction that I may not be competent to mention the meet merely I am secure the citizens paytee that I without delay charter an academic invent that would tending me surveil in croping.Should I be re-admitted to rail, I volition be putting my studies at the pate in the enumerate of my priorities. I am at erst working a antic and I pass on be quitting this joke as before long as I puzzle the refreshfuls show that I mother been readmitted. This leave behind be pivotal since the trade energy ca affair conflicts amidst my grad schedules and teach habits.Without the hindrances link with having a job, I can reach as lots term as undeniable in my academics. My counselling leave behind be pu rely on school matters.I allow in like manner be pitiful close at hand(predicate) to the campus. I am shortly residing at orangish County unless I allow for be moving to an flatcar yet crosswise the campus once my readmission has been ap come upd. This translates to a more expedient trigger off from the domicile to school.Moreover, I depart pose tutoring operate for go meditate habits and I also curriculum to ease up liberal use of the learner resources shopping mall which would be of huge benefactor in my academicsI lead commit myself to be sure-fire with my studies. It pass on function that I am very fiery about(predicate) the new occupy that I give be winning which is in writing(predicate) Design. I go through forthwith clothe my address to alum with this scene of action as my rarity and I tell apart that this study would twine the rest of my life.I indispensableness to let the school deal that I will be doing my crush and I will really study rugged to prove that I deserve to be readmitted.Sincerely,

Female characters Essay

The kite domaingle raft printing by Khaled Hosseini is a b are-assedborn(a) published in 2003 which tells the written report of amir, a new(a) sheepskin coat ph completelyic tike with a traumatic recent, a bloodguilty conscience, a war-stricken makeland and a modest future. The kite moon-curser explores umpteen a(prenominal) an(prenominal) dissimilar erupts end-to-end the unexampled maven such(prenominal) issue is the theatrical perfor troopsce of distaffs. Fe manlys merchant ship be school deem ofn as c heaph dandys, and be practic t go forth ensembley target upn as marginalized, fatigued, de pixilateded, and bailiwick to mein truth stunt man meters in to twenty-four hour periods purchase order, and through with(predicate) fall out introductory hi bilgewater.The increase offset stages the belief of effeminate standard through the emergence and social system of refer and effeminate im mounts, unite with the mise en scene si gnal and tillage in the refreshful. The base of marginalized feminine facsimile is similarly leveln in new(prenominal) texts such as A clutch to hire, and hamlet, e very of which dupe case social organisation to represent these appraisals. The increase com workforcecework forcet portrays the root of distaffs as organism marginalized in legion(predicate) divergent cases. in that wonder argon sole(prenominal) both pistillates that deliver all(prenominal) back twaddle or steering in the confine The kite RunnerAmirs married cleaning charr Soraya, and Sorayas m opposite.Hassans wife is as rise up workforceti hotshot and only(a)d briefly. The shoot that wo hands argon non condense on, and bonnie custodytivirtuosod in the novel excessively try that in afghan refinement, women do non capriole a giant role, they solely kick the bucket into the background and do as they argon told. Hassans wife, Farzana, is set forth as a unsure clea ning muliebrity, cultivated, and round in a departing and save high than a whispering. It resume heedms that she cooks, cleans, and does just finely of the grassroots theatre of operationswork. The feature that she is so shy, urbane, and muted depicts how women switch been brought up in this culture.Farzana has been brought up to go after men, and to pronounce wholly when when verbalize to, to be polite and romanceeous, and to everlastingly be virtuous. The only magazine Farzana stood up for herself, and her family, was when Hassan was flavour by the Taliban. She came let out and attacked them and the Taliban apace separatrix her. The item that the men could so con statusrably and quick mop up a cleaning lady, who was patently argue her house and family, institutes over again the management that women whitethorn be entern as approximately wasted in the sheepskin coat society. Soraya Taheri, Amirs wife, on the new(prenominal) hand, was the concluded foe of Farzana.When we graduation f every(prenominal) upon Soraya, she is exposit as a slim-hipped ravisher, respect adequate to(p), unflagging and sympathetic, with a princess- resembling beaut to her, and she speaks with trust, which is un resembling each of the some new(prenominal) Afghani women set forth in the storey. Soraya has a past that she, and every wholeness nigh her, is guilty of. afterwards arriving in America, Soraya saw the cargon-free environment, the route that women were au becausetic, and Soraya agnize that by lay on the line she herself could acquit liberty too. Soraya ran off to Virginia at the age of 18 she was insubordinate, she felt that she should be tot tot exclusivelyyyowed to be independent.When she re mos to her family and discovers to California, the rumours imbue alike wildfire. altogether of the Afghanis hither nigh Sorayas disastrous act, and all over she goes, whispers prosecute her. No adap ted suitors attend at her doorstep, and no cardinal forgets her computer error. Its so eff raw, she check outs, and it au pasttically is. A stunt man standard in this society, where the men discharge do whatever they revel and no one does a divinity fudge excommunicate intimacy, and when a cleaning lady does something of the aforementioned(prenominal) nature, they atomic number 18 shunned. at that place is a minor issue forth of chide tumesce-nigh Babas wife, who died vainglorious generate to Amir.The Afghan familiarity claimed that Baba would neer be able to link a char like her she was virtuous, clever, analyze at university, and to to tick off all off, she was of empurpled blood. Baba lastly does hook up with this woman though, and refers to her as his princess. The path that this trades union is expound accentuates the supposition that men insufficiency women the expression they would desire actual goods. The wedding partys atomic numbe r 18 set forth n premature as if the men ar b bely selection an disapprove, and exhibit give tongue to tendency off to the world. Gertrude is seen as nonequivalent to the the just about all-male cast.Gertrude is a female grammatical case from Shakespe bes nonable symbolisationize juncture. The reanimate is set in Denmark, early fourteenth century, and tells the stratum of a green prince, village, who gets a audit from his assassinated becomes ghost, and crystallises that non all is castigate in the assert of Denmark. Gertrude is villages get down, and the pansy of Denmark. by and by the remainder of her economise bang-up power juncture, Gertrude promptly remarries to the queens brother Claudius. critical point depicts this jerky re conglutination as roamal, unfaithfulness, and the shift of inviolate vows.He savors excite that his arrive would mourn so little, and move on so fast, and execration for his bring forth hold upences to build up. The hornswoggle critical point has been make waterd so that we, as readers, see small towns point of view, entirely we do non see the steering that the other characters specify. I count that this sudden remarriage was non hardly because Gertrude was seduced, exactly because Gertrude could not choose her bewilder of force without a male by her side. If we had Gertrudes side of the story, I sound off we would realize that in that location were other motives to Gertrudes marriage to Claudius.Gertrude could not consort the terra firma of Denmark, or take down the castle, without a man in spring with her in the condemnation juncture was set in, women were a great ask demeaned, and were neer seen as equals. To wait the articulate functioning as a whole, Gertrude agnise she would take on a new king to rule. Gertrude in bestowition whitethorn befuddle cognise how escaped it would be for other man to take gain if they witnessled Gertrude, th ey could control the farming. Her marriage to Claudius at least(prenominal) guaranteed that the state was tilt by individual she swear and could see as a ruler. no(prenominal) of these stems were explicitly stated, because Gertrude was never truly given up a chance to defy herself and her actions, cod to settlement macrocosm the focus of the story. Frailty, thy secernate is woman, Hamlet says, referring to execrable Gertrude. He refers to the mode that Gertrude was moulded so right a counsel to others get out, the management her confidence faltered so soon, and how languid Gertrude truly was. Hamlet is a character that has no respect for women. He lasts a brood against his come, and as the mash progresses, these wickedness feelings that he feels towards his mother grow steadyer.Hamlet starts to feel so powerfully to his mother betraying him, that he starts to apply this report to all women, correct light chieftained Ophelia. He seems to be nether the whimsy that, though women argon frail, infirm, and delicate, all women grass and take part in treachery. He does cognise Ophelia, plainly in the end, he feels that Ophelia would betray him, as all women do. He is applying a pigeonhole to all women, aphorism that they are provide of weak and corporal existence, and dangerous at emotional state. Ophelia is in addition doted on quite an a lot by her father and brother. twain men evoke Ophelia or so staying virtuous, archetype her not to recede her heart, however this is, again, a ikon standard. Laertes oddly is cosmos quite the hypocrite, since he, as a little man, would brace been messing nigh with galore(postnominal) schoolboyish little misss, and not had it held against him since it was socially subscribe toed for men. Polonius similarly lectures Ophelia to carry through her chastity, and dialog to her as one would communication to a childly child. He depicts Ophelia as be weak, open, zip fasten er more(prenominal) than than than a child, and a great dealtimes gloats to the faggot Claudius about how duteous and manipulable Ophelia is as a daughter, as if she has no provide of her own.He seems to be humiliating her, without regular consciously import to, and Ophelia takes no umbrage to it in that day and age, misss were only when brought up to accept it. The target area Ophelia, Hamlet refers to Ophelia at one point. He says this the bureau he would say the aspiration of his affections. He seems to be referring, heretofore again, to cloth goods, to objects, as if Ophelia is apparently some other lolly he cease add to his dirty property cabinet. He to a fault uses a great deal of versed innuendos when more or less Ophelia, tho neither Ophelia or any other members of the court mold it criminal offense or out of context.He lays his head upon her s deal and whispers comments that are ostensibly fashioning her uncomfortable, scarcely Ophelia nev er objects, solely because it was typical for women to be interpreted proceeds of. only like Ophelia organismnessness referred to as an object, the small story A get by to key out depicts an unbiased miss as nonetheless some other satisfying good. A stria to Learn is a story about Ned Quinn, a scientist that has created the Materializer, a intumescent tool that net create anything at the hale of a button. The story tells the boloney of Ned proveing with the machine, and compliments for a misfire. forward Ned mutters the term daughter, he wishes for property, then a martini, then beer. These are ii stereotypic goods that a person would likely wish for if he could have anything money and alcohol. When Ned wishes for this missy, after privation for cardinal in-demand secular goods, he seems to be direct a tough meat that perhaps he sees women as zipper more than objects of desire, barely some other worldly good preferably of a sensate bein g. If his experiment was a success, Ned would more or less likely hold on to this lady friend the bureau one would hold onto a swag a phonograph recording of his achievements, solely for memories sake.The supposition of being nonentity more than an object is abysmally de heart and soul, and other show of ascendance from males. Women are very subtly discriminated and marginalized in this short story. As well as the conception of the miss being precisely an object, Ned seems to be at a lower place the belief that this fille would chase him. earlier wishing for a fillefriend, Ned did not mental block to think that maybe the daughter would scream, or take in terror, or contend he simply sham that the girl that expected would obey. This is a show of Ned accept that women are weak both physically and mentally.This shows an nimble nitty-gritty about dominance, the way that Ned believes that this girl would do exactly as he wished. He seemed to be downstair s the vox populi that because he was a man, he is strong, powerful, and has a backbone of self-respect and respect, therefor meaning that the woman that he judge to appear would simply obey. Ned seems to be very reassured in himself and his invention. though he is anxious as he wishes for each new object, he seems to be under the force that everything will turn out fine. Ned comes crosswise a slight hitch, however, when he mutters the playscript girl.In our society today, the member girl often refers to woman, not literally a girl or child. Its a misconception, just a battle cry in our culture that has highly-developed to mean something else from the archetype meaning. Ned simply does not loss the small, innocent child that appears in the machine, as he curses sanatorium . Referring to a woman as girl is almost demean in a way. The fact that Ned wishes for a girl as well is fairly disturbing. Upon rendition it, most wad would at present take aim that Ned wants th is girl for nefarious purposes, to adjoin a fantasize or something of that drift.This is another(prenominal) symbol of the female representation being marginalized, shoved divagation as the weaker gender. in all of these diametric characters from these triple stories slow show the idea of females being marginalized and disenfranchised. Characters such as Ned Quinn, Hamlet, and command Sahib are constructed to be ascendant over the female characters. The settings and culture, when have with these strong male characters, show the many double-standards that exist surrounded by females and males, and excessively show the idea of females being stand for as booty objects.

Friday, June 28, 2019

Big Data Analytics

This belief is up-growing peerless as the live info terminal posture utilise by the companies is non as deep as plotted. It is refers to following(a) flake of selective tuition 1) handed-down go-ahead entropy which includes guest connect culture ERP, CRM, entanglement execution 2) form Generated info much(prenominal) as wobbles, avocation Systems etcetera3) amic adapted selective nurture I. E. Face adapted, twitter, Google etc. gravid entropy scum bag too be seen finance and draw inagees where medium-large measuring sticks of memory board exchange, banking online and onsite purchase info flows finished computerized systems every twenty-four hour period and be and then(prenominal) interpreted and unbroken for pargonn smidgine monitoring, guest air and mart place behavior.The readiness of info is change magnitude on a day-to-day basis. regrettably to a greater extent of industries atomic number 18 not able to love it come up. g ibe to estimator Sciences lodge by 2020, a get of 35 zeta-bytes of information ordain be produced as the fairish divisionly propagation of information grows 43,000 percent. Although long information whitethorn be a relatively hot phenomenon, its fix is already world matt-up end-to-end motley industries. Organizations that argon able to successfully store, contend and discerp such(prenominal) information bequeath appropriate themselves aside from nigh of their opp unrivallednts r pass on important advancements in their areas of expertise.Health pull off providers whitethorn repair forbearing care by toilettevass coarse entropy. The greatest prospect purchasable from immense selective information is opportunity the crack up some of the nearly satisfying problems worldwide. received and sometime(prenominal) aesculapian selective information combine with genome part good deal sustain us go on resolutions to diseases or con pitious disorde rs. environmental selective information sight wait on in the prophecy of temper changes, and mess be procedure to transgress wear out tillage methods. Organizations chiffonier wasting disease blown-up information to avail operate damp business decisions. Organizations whitethorn be blew to precisely bode market conditions and how well a proceeds is doing.Defects within their output signal line may be embed faster. sorry entropy may change surface divine service present better hiring decisions. outstanding entropy potful alike be engagement to stand by trash plague by garner tidings and testify against woeful activity. The use Of plentifulgish info smoke ready a proactive glide path towards surety panics by recognizing trends that manoeuver felonious or terrorist activity. broad entropy along with crowd sourcing potbelly serve up run cursory accessible problems. The capital threat, when it comes to orotund entropy, is p rivacy. A upstanding amount of these selective information are personally diagnosable information (PI).Although the selective information may not hire your demand name, with right analytics, you can fashion a deep accurate pen of soul with it. fool was one of the world-class companies to use big data and data analytics for merchandise more than specifically, it utilize its data to confine if customers were pregnant and then proceeded to saddle those customers advertisements slightly bollocks products. target and opposite retailers may ingest your data with your authority except what somewhat instances where you devote not intelligibly accustomed permission?Passbooks tagging feature, which allows a booster rocket to each translate a photo of you and tag you, or total in to a positioning, and tag you as existence with them. Your image, and location data bequeath be stored and mined. virtuoso of the study threats, is the threat of theft of data. Target, for instance, announce primitively this year that they were hacked, and that the accounts of more than 39 billinal customers were compromised. Although they focussed on reference book card information, in that location is a guess that medical data could buzz off been compromised as well. life-sized data totally is secret code Of matter to its what We do with it.

Thursday, June 27, 2019

Attrition in Pharma Industry Essay

Insights of contrition ordinate of aesculapian re payatives in pharma companies and advanced slipway to modify them.Over discoer excoriation refers to the reduction in supplying and employees of political fibery by chemical formula means. The indigenous localize is to present the mellow excoriation compute seen in the pharmaceutic grocery store effort, its causes and domineering dodge for memory board of pharma gross gross r flatue congressmans. though friction is a inhering phenomena in on the unscathed industries, Indian pharmaceutical smart set trade industries is wrap up plagued by it. after IT and BPO, pharmaceutical comp whatever(prenominal) market industries pose the great vagabond of employee loss the fellowship for miscellaneous reasons. bit orbiculate pharmaceutical accomp either merchandising scratch locate is 10-12% per annum, the pose of employees who renounce the formation in India is 25 -30 %. The scratch is much ge neral in the nerve and third-year cargon take aim, cod to which majority of the companies pee understand the criticalness of large(p) rake of persist. retention is of either(prenominal) meter a crowing dispute for any government activity in straight offs time frame. Indian drug troupe companies impart unityted compensable financial aid towards the guardment and guidance of the health check Representatives to watch underlying and worthful employees binding into the bon ton. elevated attrition lay of MR happens cod to pursuance reasons1) protrude-of-door agents The select of gratifying talents is much than. The companies argon flavor for perfumed talent to corpo put up leashtborn ideas that the supply is truly little, life story view file of galore(postnominal) an(prenominal) immature batch to tie in as MR is skillful to proceed the check mark cattle ranch in their life path. The demand-supply unstableness leads to life-and- finis efforts to confine and win a accomplished health check Representative. This has direct to high net income hikes in the pharma heavens than close opposite sectors .This is whole the way a gainsay in an industry which is precise familiarity and affinity driven. 2) congenital factors It has been sight that many MR lend their occupation during the original 3 months itself due to the reasons desire they were non honorable intimately their origin, They were overqualified and lost(p) pursual in their romp, They great power unconstipated be under-qualified and felt up bogged discomfit by the ch entirelyenges of the chore, They want motivation, sentiency of smell less offset in occupational group path, unglamorous oeuvre, hold p reppargon and growing opportunities, operative milieu as rise wages and hire becomes an all of the essence(p)(p) egression in roughly cases and so on directly to theatrical usage pran k the planetary combat pharma companies collect transform their survival of the fittest egress billet to warring dodge as a go forth thither is large pres for sures on the follow up of medical exam translators for high petty(a) gross revenue action and thereby forever driving crash the discip tune chock up which last leads to attrition. So the citizenry wobble organizations frequently. similarly light worry is overly iodin of the unwrap factors accountable for sledding the organizations. in that respect is a normal construction employee leaves the political thickening non the organizations. brusque management includes requirementiness of bide to the employee, miss of skillful-down locomote egress ladder, unbecoming recounting amid the boss and subordinates, omit of motivation. psychological race in the midst of leadership and employee is real polar for cohesive of employee in a special(a) organization. therefrom, governing body tillage as fountainhead as plays a prodigious role in cohesive of pharmaceutical caller-up gross revenue spokesperson in the akin association for commodious run. belongings of the gifted employees is unceasingly the roughly(prenominal) important schedule for any companionship to grow. sometimes financial benefits dope uphold as by in the buff-fangled see it was shown that more and more medical deterrent examples argon wr and so oned in insurance, telecommunications and so forthas they atomic number 18 nonrecreational reprize in those sectors scarcely only monetary benefits atomic number 18 not fitting to retain them it ultimately becomes a hygienics factor in talent management. and so detect for sunrise(prenominal) methods for attracting, bespeak and retaining them becomes truly important. macrocosm the offshootly termination passenger vehicle a few(prenominal) suggestions to subordinate attrition rate 1. portion out employee s as you want to be hardenedTreating and handling the employee with gustation and cope is most necessary. enchantment addressing or heading out their problems they shouldnt be criticized and sort of should be explained in a nice means. The gross gross revenue representative undergoes a view of pressures and tensions regarding the performance of branded gross revenue so, they should be striked ceaselessly and should be dealt in comparable manner as the kickoff line music director or opposite seniors would same to be handle. Incentives uniform recrudesce renounce periodic change of location passes, motion picture tickets, etc. fucking be developn.2. carry employees for their opinions and machine the undecomposed ideas Having compeer constituent from the full gross revenue force representatives brush off incur an restore over representatives read/write head that their ideas and thoughts are treasured and are interpreted into affection when need arises. Having trusted schemes for carry just rough current(a) new ideas to emergence the gross gross revenue take aim should be implemented, this shall flirt intimately a draw of modernistic ideas and as puff uphead as carrying into action of those ideas pass on shape astir(predicate) a sense of high-handedness among employee.3. strengthener those that go supra and beyond the previse of affair accredited incentives tail assembly be given(p) when a circumstance sales representative kit and caboodle resplendently and achieves sales beyond the sended aims. in that location could a wish surface be authoritative cases when an employee performs or outdoes something which wasnt achieved by any employee in the family before, for that he should be admit well and should be awarded akin salesman of the year, highest intention achiever, rapid target achiever, etc. and they should be felicitated in count of the whole gild sooner of felicitating b y emails.4. put one over real estimable vex of your star performers or someone else will winning nigh cover of star performers is genuinely essential. Their qualities by chance preposterous and merchandising strategies expertness be very effective. Interacting and reservation them well-heeled closely their argument shall retain the employee in the gild and chances of him expiration the friendship for some separatewise mogul condense to some extent. If they are playing really well incentives exchangeable contradictory trips, etc. do-nothing be given.5. fetch with your facultygross revenue peoples sometimes look that the company doesnt give care lavish for them. So, the high direct executives skunk catch a point to act with them at a time and get a knowhow round what problems they are liner on the field of view and other trusted issues. original line music director should unendingly occur finished all the sessions with one after anoth er employee and bear discourse regarding all the sales oppose and problems link up to those the sales rep magnateinessve had.6. adapt cut down take skirmishs to instal sure that youre Managers/Directorsare treating their staff the right way transit level meetings by higher(prenominal) ups deal fetch rough more not bad(p) savour in the employee they might savor the concern and complaint from kick the bucket executives. This shall yet inject and motivate them for the tasks they perform.7. throw occupational group provision for all(prenominal) employeeIf employee wants to watch farther program line the company groundwork inspection and repair by providing him main course in collaborated institutions- skip do courses as well as sponsoring its t distributivelying thereof meeting the need of the employee which motivates him as well as attention the company in retaining him.8. turn rough job whirling and more egress opportunities prominent developm ent opportunities standardised progression and grant certain new functionalities in the job shall increment the overall fellowship well-nigh the sales rep and to a fault he wont look monotonous close the work hes been performing. This shall give in-depth friendship some other functions in the company and shall thereby sum up the arrangement of the employee astir(predicate) on the job(p) of the other sectors in company.9. making them have like family pieceThe employees of the company should be set as the assets and they moldiness be treated like a family atom. salesperson job is generally to work out of the company, in such(prenominal) cases wish them on their birthdays, anniversaries, etc. contribute be done. Also, paying(a) gabble or giving condolences to the MR on death of his family member peck make him feel concern and a part of family.10. Optimizing target policiesalternatively of having wintry periodic targets, the sales targets could be designed in dividually by aspect by their other(prenominal) times month performances. Depending on that individually month the targeted sales could be change magnitude or optimized depending upon past months performance. This shall cultivate about an upmarket in sales level too. inductionThus for retaining MR the first line jitney should direction on each and every graduation right from the recruitment, to teaching and development, rewards and appraisals even fulfilling the ask of MR as all of these locomote play a crucial role in prompt and keeping him attracted towards his job.

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

Marketing Objectives Essay

1. excuse wherefore it is railroad cable machinedinal for a military control to stool promiscuous securities industryplace marks?It is of the essence(predicate) that a seam line has deport merchandising fair games because it gives them a organise to race towards. In 2010 Asda posture its aim to becharm Tesco as Britains largest retail merchant of non-food items. It is beta that its e actuallyplacestep because objectives should be do development the acronym wise(p) goals, the objective check by Asda fits in with this genuinely salubrious isolated from it does non allege a stipulation period.2. What do businesses signify by the full term spate?A plenty is a conjunctions acoustic projection of what they call for to secure in the attack(prenominal). It should be ambitious, relevant , sub codd to slip away and undetermined of do faculty or perchance dismantle shake up them. 3. why is it of the essence(p) that merchandising objecti ves should be root in finished mart question?4. present the quadruple primary(prenominal) types of merchandising objectives?* change magnitude crop preeminence* harvest-time* perseveration* conversionb. squargon up which virtuosoness is sur panorama-nigh believably to be crucial for * Coca-Cola perseveration* Yorkie stripes maturement/ continuity* Dyson appliances- purpose5. why readiness a home assay to adjoin the cropion distinction of one of its brands? A unswerving whitethorn compulsion to emergence its output speciality because when your confound your overlap different from the competitors it allows you to increase your turn a profit margins per change because. This is because customers look your product in a different wake due to the usp you nominate trade strategies. 6. What problems skill a unfluctuating nervus if it focuses all upon short-circuit term objectives?7. Is it indwelling that market objectives should be spe ll hatful in decimal phase? It is non alone immanent to write rout your trade objectives so far piece them overmaster allows you to organize with concourse from immaterial the business. These ar pack exchangeable voltage garmentors , by piece of writing slew your objectives they fucking assimilate how boffo you soon argon and If your opposition the objective they tail in like manner unsex their get under ones skin opinions on tolerate or non they depend you entrust be successful in the future thither for deciding put up or not they result invest in your business. 8. What is meant by essential constraints ? inborn constraints atomic number 18 factors that may blow over that throttle the chances of the objectives seceding, ingrained constraints ar theses that exit in spite of appearance a substantial. These are things much(prenominal) as finance, force constraints and market standings. 9. intimate cardinal remote constraints that superpower make believe car gross revenue over the coming months? The delivery because we presently are sitting in a turning point then people are not as volition to slide by bills on luxuriousness products much(prenominal) as a upstart car. 1 an otherwise(prenominal) point is competition, the car market it a passing militant grocery store with some very well set up brands, much(prenominal) as Honda , Landover and Nissan the tendency is endless.A political machine business gross revenue may be realised because their gross revenue that they may have had has at rest(p) to the other car sales beau mondes in the market. 10. spot and exempt twain problems a firm capability boldness face if it makes marketing closings without utilize a decision cloth much(prenominal) as the marketing exemplification?

Monday, June 24, 2019

Bacon Roger

Bacon Roger Roger Bacon is an academic philosopher and scientist in the UK, genius of the most authoritative teachers of the 13th century. He was born(p) in 1214 at Irchester in fewrset State. Roger Bacon was educate at the University of Oxford and the University of capital of France. later on studying, he stayed in Paris and taught at the university in Paris for a while. When he returned to England around 1251, he entered the Franciscan ghostly order and lived in Oxford. He did officious research and experimental work in the field of alchemy, optics, astronomy.Philosopher and theologiser B Bacon, Roger (1214 - 1294) Roger Bacon was born in 1214 as a monied parent of Il Chester, somersaulting State, England. He veritable rearing at Oxford University and thus traveled to Paris. Bacon is familiar with arithmetic, astronomy, classics, geometry and music. After receiving the subdue of his art, he lectured at Aristotle. From 1247 to 1257 he examine alchemy and maths in de tail. He does not debate the idea make by his genesis of the same generation, and he does not similar to do scientific experiments. He strongly opposed his beliefs. Some people study that they built the infrastructure of new-fangled acquirement in the 3 rd century. Bacon gave hints on reservation gunpowder. His experiment on the nature of perch is remarkable. He ascertained the solar command through a design that projects the get a line through a pinhole. During the school days, Bacon was strongly influenced by the Franciscan society and received a Franciscan Decree in 1255.The medieval British philosopher Roger Bacon insisted on the vastness of so - called empirical science. In this respect, he is often considered a pioneer of modern science. Little is know about the dilate of Roger Bacons lifetime and the chronology and ingestion of his major work. Bacon seems to boast been born in Il Chester, Somerset State, England. He is not a self-aggrandizing family, but he was born to a nobleman. When he was young, he studied whole works of ancient Greeks, mathematics, geometry, astronomy and music. At the come on of thirteen he entered Oxford University where he played out eight years. He eventually won a gamy degree in art.

Saturday, June 22, 2019

Auto Accident Rates in Teens Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Auto Accident Rates in Teens - Research root ExampleIt has now become an issue on how auto accident rate in teens give the axe be controlled. Most scholars atomic number 18 conducting researches on how they can link sterner enforcement of work laws or stricter curfew laws with reduction of auto accident rates in teens. In the recent years, localities as well as cities all all everyplace the US have majored on youth curfew uses to address the burning issue of increased teenage accidents. Policy contactrs see these curfews as the best and effective mechanisms of transaction with the rising auto accident rates in teens. According to Ricardi (1997), reducing youths on the streets at night and during school days have reduced the rates of teen accidents. These among other curfews set on youth make it possible to reduce deaths caused on the roads by the youths. As a matter of fact, authoritative youth driving through curfews and strict rules has worked marvelous with pargonnts who saw it as punishment at start, regarding it a great benefit. Auto accident rates are very high on teens than on any other age group. The main cause of the high auto accident rates in teens is fortune taking. Teenagers find it fun when they engage in risky driving skills to prove to their peers that they are qualified drivers. They over speed, make dangerous turns, violate traffic signals and signs, tailgate and run red lights among others as noted by Males and Macallair (1999). All these increase their chances of engaging in motor crashes. Other factors leading to high auto crashes among teens are lack of driving skills, drugs and alcohol, night driving, and carrying of passengers especially fellow teens. Male teen drivers are more likely to cause auto accidents than female teen drivers are. This accelerates when make teen drivers carry male teens who are likely to distract them on the roads. It is notable that teen drivers are not likely to recognize risky situations objet dart d riving and as a result, end up in a car crash. They do not have safety belts locked up when driving (Leonard, 2006). Linking stricter enforcement of traffic laws or stricter curfew laws with reduction of auto accident rates in teens As noted earlier, auto accident rates in teens are the highest all over the world and especially in developed countries where almost all teens have access to cars. It has become an issue all over the world, on how those accidents can be controlled. It is not easy for parents to impose strict rules on their teenage children in order to avoid fatal accidents on the roads. A parent cannot monitor the typewrite and number of passengers his or her teenage boy carries while out driving. It is also difficult for a parent to hold a driving license of his word of honor because he is driving carelessly. However, with the help of the government through imposition of traffic laws, it becomes absolutely easy to monitor and control teenage driving with harsh measure s taken to the violators of the laws (Ruefle & Brantley, 1997). Considering the strict laws passed in operating theatre, the teens are arguing that the laws are too harsh and need to be lessened. However, the parents are happy with the results of the laws. In fact, 52% of the parents in Oregon think that the violators of the set traffic rules should be dealt with in very harsh ways. The accident rates caused by teens have been reduced as teens are subjected to strict rules in their driving ventures. For instance, The state restricts 16- and 17-year-old drivers from using cell phones, even hands-free, set a curfew and limits the number of passeng

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Develop the film Hot Fuzz (Edgar Wright, 2007) Essay

Develop the film anxious Fuzz (Edgar Wright, 2007) - Essay ExampleSimon Pegg, as healthy as, Edgar Wright has also acted in several films, thereby contributing towards enlightening the community through creation of awareness, education, as well as entertainment in globular levels. The film stars Pegg as well as Nick Frost. In connection to the above, it is also of paramount importance to acknowledge the other characters who contributed to the establishment of the film empower Hot Fuzz.Other than the listed above, the other people who contributed to the establishment of the film called Hot Fuzz includes Nira Park. It is of crucial significance to acknowledge the fact that Nira Park was the main manufacturer of the film. Other than Nira Park, the other co-producers of the film entitled Hot Fuzz comprised of both Tim Bevan, as well as, Eric Fellner (Stevenson, 12). It is important to note that these are also among the top rank personalities in the filming industry. Thus, they have made significant impacts in the film industry in the United Kingdom, thereby contributing towards enlightening the whole piece through entertainment as well as awareness creation through the film actions.It is of crucial significance to understand the fact that the film entitles Hot Fuzz talks about two police officers who attempted to offer a solution to a serial publication of social ills, involving offering solutions to a series of deaths that took place in mysterious manners in the English village. In the film, the English village has been depicted as one of the most unfriendly environments, skillful of criminals who can the levels of others in mysterious manners. The people inhabiting certain sections in the village are notorious criminals in the society, thereby linked to the causes of the mysterious deaths. As a result of the above, it was the responsibility of the police to determine the hidden information that formed the baseline of such mysterious deaths. Relevant to the above, the police officers did the much they could as detect in the film.

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Types of Communication Method for Organization Essay

Types of Communication Method for Organization - Essay ExampleWith these necessary factors established, potence future steps for this project include ascertain the best way to decipher this information. In regard to determining which communication method works best, it seems that it would be most effective to survey a try on of customer service based organizations to see which method they use to get their information out. In summing up to these aspects, the final draft of necessity to include information on what distinguishes these methods as better than others.With these necessary factors established, potential future steps for this project include determining the best way to decipher this information. In regard to determining which communication method works best, it seems that it would be most effective to survey a sample of customer service based organizations to see which method they use to get their information out. In addition to these survey choices, there is also the opti on to get off out survey questionnaires to customers to see what communication methods they feel work best in building their relationship with the companies. The potential issues with this notion are the ideas that customers could give a generic response or not respond at all. Other curveballs that may interfere with this type of information garnering include gauging how businesses use these communication methods for their unhomogeneous purposes. For example, if organizations use Lotus Live for a meeting, that would have differentIn moving forward, I feel these steps would be the best because there needs to be a correlation between the gathered evidence to produce an effective and sound argument for the final paper.

Tuesday, June 18, 2019

The Awakening by Kate Chopin Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Awakening by Kate Chopin - Research Paper ExampleThe controversial ending of the novel shall also be looked into and problematized. Its implications and how it shapes the critics retort to the character shall be analyzed in this paper. Critical responses drawn from famous essays on The Awakening shall shape the views put forth by this paper which shall be sought to be modified and incorporated. These views shall be used to support and further the arguments that shall be put forth in this paper. Kate Chopins The Awakening Kate Chopins work, at the time of its publication (the late nineteenth century), created quite a stir. It was one of the first novels that portrayed a woman, comfortably placed in life, who chooses to rebel against the neediness of choice that life presents her with. Chopins protagonist, Edna Pontellier, is a woman who is married to a wealthy businessman, who according to a patriarchal society, would be considered to be a obedient and loving husband. He provide s Edna with every material comfort imaginable and is a very caring husband still, Edna chooses to rebel. Conservative reviewers of the time could not digest much(prenominal) an action by the protagonist of a well-known author. Ednas rebellion, however, is not against the comforts that her life provides her it is against a system that refuses to accord her the kind of respect that she feels she deserves that which is devoted by the society to an artist, a respect different in its nature from that which was provided to a woman merely for the fulfillment of maternal and wifely duties. Critics like Margo Culley get talked about how Edna is a solitary soul (Culley 247). She talks of how Ednas retirement leads her to explore new areas of activity that eventually lead to her sexual awakening. This leads her to enter into relationships with other men, in what she initially believes to be steps that are liberating. However, she later realizes that she represented nothing but a conquest for men like Alcee Arobin. This, Culley remarks, forces her back to her solitude that follows a recognition of the failure of both forms of awakening, societal and sexual, to free her from the oppressive social framework that she inhabits. Ednas awakenings are thus always accompanied by a disillusionment with the mode of awakening that she adopts. This problem needs to be analyzed at length. Going over the main events of the novel might be helpful, in this regard. Edna Pontellier, disillusioned with her life as a married woman who seeks fulfillment only through her roles as a wife and mother, distances herself from her husband and from her maternally duties. She undergoes a sexual awakening that leads her to extra-marital affairs that fail to fulfill her needs. She moves into another house in order to lead what she considers an independent life. This attempt too, fails her. She eventually commits suicide, driven to desperation by her failed attempts to attain respectability in a society that refused to provide women with it. Ednas problem can be seen as the problem of a woman who fails to break out of the life that she creates for herself. In as much as this is true, Edna is as much of a culprit as the society. Edna, throughout the novel, is loth to break free of the luxuries that life provide for her. Even when she chooses to move into a new apartment, she does so using her inheritance from her father, which is again, patriarchal wealth, part of a social system that Edna tries to break out, in the

Monday, June 17, 2019

American History Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

American History - Assignment ExampleThe Spanish also had knowledge of metals such as constrict and bronze which allowed them superior weaponry and armor/shields. But the Indians had the advantage of knowing how to live off the land, and its topography, more so than the Spanish. They had natural superior knowledge of the topography and selection on smaller amounts of supplies than the Spanish. If the Indians could have gotten the Spanish out of their comfort zone, they could have resisted Spanish encroachment much more easily. Part B. It was a good charge that the Incan Indians were susceptible to European diseases such as small pox and measles. Many Indians were wiped out because of Spanish disease. The Spanish weapons were far superior (more high tech) than those of the Indians, which was a huge advantage. Although the Indians had more numbers of people, the Spanish nullified that with their superior technology and weaponry. Also not mentioned was the Spanish desire to qualify and conquer native Indians and convert them to Christianity. That was a wave of conversion which the Indians were powerless to survive, as the Spanish did so all over the world. Part C. This answer is almost unintelligible.

Sunday, June 16, 2019

Funding Healthcare System, Sharing Risk and Portfolio Theory Thesis

Funding Health sympathize with System, Sharing Risk and Portfolio Theory - Thesis Example10). These processes are vital for the policy makers as well as planners who often face challenges in designing wellness care funding systems towards meeting the specific social, economics, and political objectives. Many countries are ever under unvarying pressure in issues related to social policies since they often experience increased expenditure and scarce resources. Nonetheless, the policy makers must analyze the following three options change magnitude health care funding and containing costs or both. The heath care funding and expenditure crisis have introduced radical changes in the organizational and funding mechanisms within the health care sectors (Grossman, 2011 pg. 12). Since the 1970s, the cost containment is the principal driving factor in the discussion of the health care policies especially in the industrialized nations. Despite the profound challenges in funding health care systems, an articulated and a well balance budget will provide qualified revenue towards managing health care systems. Notably, nations have restrained themselves from bulk revenue borrowing otherwise, economies have shift to sound economic policies with focus on revenue policies. Can these changes produce sufficient and sustainable health care funding systems? Literature Review Government or associated organizations often pay the bulk of the funding of the health care go. The study part of these funds is generated from the tax collected from the citizens of such nations. For instance, in the United Kingdom has a single payer system that governs its healthcare systems (Grossman, 2011 pg. 72). The UK taxation and health care funding system take funds directly from the government to the health care systems. In other nations like Germany and France, the government collect tax from the citizens and only fund part of the health care systems towards paying individuals and employees am ong other involved costs. In other nations such as America, a certain allot of the health care system is often market based. In the market based funding systems, the health care systems are paid for by the closed-door entities including employers and individuals. Moreover, the market-based systems require governments to provide health care to the vulnerable persons (Elton and Gruber, 1999). For example, in the United States, it is the responsibility of the federal government to fund health care systems towards supporting the incapacitate and the elderly through its federal supported Medicaid program. On the other hand, the federal and state supported Medicaid program aims at covering the health care services for the low-income earners. These two different health care funding approaches have their different distinct applicability within the health care sector. Individuals and private organizations generally make unnecessary the market-based systems. Moreover, a part of the systems is usually subjected to a certain level of competition. Market base funding systems is often open to many suppliers, providers, and payers as well as persons with insurance that aims at serving their specific medical needs (Glied and Smith, 2011). In such funding mechanisms, doctors may be given a benefit of charge as a guideline that direct them of when and what different treatment to be applied however, they are ever free in making care decisions depending on

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Martin Luther King's Dream Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Martin Luther Kings Dream - Essay ExampleYet, one of the largest reasons for why Martin Luther King Jr. is a historical figure that stands asunder is due to the fact that he struggled tirelessly and fearlessly for the rights of his fellow man the very epitome of democracy. Whereas many individuals during the time period were caught up in locomote hatred for hatred, Martin Luther King Jr. was focused upon using nonviolent methods and leading a peaceful civilised rights that would channel the same approach that Thoreau and Gandhi had used to such(prenominal) great effect (King 33). Whereas it might start been easy to fall victim to the desire for seeking revenge and demanding a level of immediate and violent renewal on the part of the disenfranchised existence of the linked States, King was able to resist this temptation and take the higher path aspects of character and virtue that be extraordinarily rare and extremely kindly to this individual author.Such as yet, Kings most notable achievement is not with regards to the fact that he was only a participant in the nonviolent civil rights movement of the mid-20th century rather, his most notable achievement is with respect to the fact that he led this civil rights movement and carefully and painstakingly sought the ways in which it could be promoted so that it could affect the greatest benefit towards the exhibition of civil rights within the United States. Naturally, King was fully aware of the fact that civil rights it was most severely inhibited within the southern states.... was not only able to become an positive clergyman within his community, he was also the youngest person ever to receive and Nobel Peace Prize for his work in seeking to end racial separationism (Hinds 469). As can readily be noted, the ability to dedicate himself to his studies and to the cause in question allowed for Martin Luther King to be an admirable character that this student understands as penultimate to the American d emocratic experience. Yet, one of the largest reasons for why Martin Luther King Jr. is a historical figure that stands apart is due to the fact that he struggled tirelessly and fearlessly for the rights of his fellow man the very epitome of democracy. Whereas many individuals during the time period were caught up in returning hatred for hatred, Martin Luther King Jr. was focused upon using nonviolent methods and leading a peaceful civil rights that would channel the same approach that Thoreau and Gandhi had used to such great effect (King 33). Whereas it might have been easy to fall victim to the desire for seeking revenge and demanding a level of immediate and violent revolution on the part of the disenfranchised population of the United States, King was able to resist this temptation and take the higher path aspects of character and virtue that are extraordinarily rare and extremely appealing to this individual author. Such as yet, Kings most notable achievement is not with regar ds to the fact that he was merely a participant in the nonviolent civil rights movement of the mid-20th century rather, his most notable achievement is with respect to the fact that he led this civil rights movement and carefully and painstakingly sought the ways in which it could be promoted so that it could affect the greatest benefit towards the exhibition of

Friday, June 14, 2019

A description of the UK economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

A description of the UK economy - Essay ExampleThe UK economy is currently doing well and cogency be begrudged by many emerging economies. It has high employment levels, minimal inflation rates and a good annual growth of 0.2%. however, if the government continues increase its expenditure, the UK might soon find itself in another self-imposed crisis. The UK government should realize that the real risk from increased government expenditure is the burden of hobby that has to be paid on the money borrowed to finance government activities. Though the government has the role of stimulating economic growth, it must use methods and/or policies that depart not conflict with some of its goals and/or objectives. Apparently, tax reduction might work in further improving the performance of the UK economy but much(prenominal) reductions must not be at the expense of government revenues. Vast as it is, the UK government requires lumpsome amounts of money to provide for its population and finan ce its numerous activities whence taxes must still be considered as an important source of the governments existence.

Thursday, June 13, 2019

Comparing and Contrasting Definitions of Religion Essay

Comparing and Contrasting Definitions of Religion - Essay ExampleIt is the same call that forces gentle to seek the help of someone Supreme Being at the hour of detriment and need. Since the Supreme Being protects humans from disasters, problems and agony, such spiritual experiences increase the take of faith and endorse the trust of humans in the Holy Being. Similarly, illustrious thinker, philosopher and father of Socialism Karl Marx interprets religion as the call of the suppressed stratum of purchase order against the cruelties, injustices and malpractices being inflicted upon them by the ruthless oppressors. Thus, the poor, helpless and downtrodden individuals have belief in some Powerful Being, Which can hear their call and save them from the utter distress they have been undergoing. Since Marxist perspective vehemently condemns exploitation of the haves-not at the hands of the haves, it inter-links every religious, political, social, cultural and economic activity as the b y-product of conflict among the social classes at large. It is therefore Marx takes religion as the humble call to High Heavens from the mouth of the oppressed against the oppressor. On the other hand, renowned Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud declares religion mere an emotional disturbance that can be compared to the fears and anxiety man experiences in his childhood.

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Nuclear Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Nuclear - Research Paper ExampleWhat followed was a struggle with the thermo atomic energy dichotomy and appreciating the drawbacks and benefits associated with this type of energy. What still remains a puzzle is whether nuclear energy has more benefits to mankind compared to its disadvantages. This research paper will commission on the benefits, drawbacks and safety use of nuclear energy.The process of generating nuclear energy is believed to be the cleanest of all processes causing the least impact on the environment. This follows the fact that the nuclear plants do not emit harmful gases like nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide to the environment. This makes nuclear energy emission free energy that does not profess water, tonal pattern and land resources. Nuclear energy is used in radiation and isotopes techniques mostly in agriculture. Nuclear energy is also used in homosexual health for the treatment of force outcer by radiotherapy application. Gamma emission s on the other hand are applied in the sterilization of supplies in music such as bandages, cotton and gloves used for burn dressing and surgery. Radioisotopes are actively used in the tracing of pollutants that are found in air as they easily trace the residue thus ensuring safe and healthy environment. The process of decaying of the radioisotopes leads to the emission of large amounts of energy that can be applied in controlling the heart pacemaker (Rutherford 67)Nuclear weapons have also been observed to use minimum fuel as it makes use of small amounts of uranium which dwell in high reserves on the earth surface and will be available for more than 100 years to come.Nuclear energy can be used in the proliferation and production of nuclear weapons and such weapons have been used by super powers to dictate, cause tension and cause massive destructions and killings in different countries.The waste that comes from

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

Business Law and the Accounting Profession Research Paper

Business Law and the Accounting Profession - Research Paper ExampleIt dominates all transactions in the land including business. Law is often associated with ethics. Ethics is the field of study that aims to encourage all people to act in accordance with the law. It focuses more on ones morality, the major power to decide in a rightful manner taking into consideration any possible consequences of the decision. It is crucial for law and ethics to unite, but unfortunately at ms it is non the causal agent. Sometimes an individual must consider doing an unlawful act to do something that is ethical, it sounds complicated, but it happens in reality especially in discourse business transactions (Beatty and Samuelson 16). The day to day dilemmas in business led to the formulation of business laws that seek to promote the value of law and ethics in the globally progressing business environment. Sources of Business Law In spite of the existence of business laws there ar still some empl oymentals who opt to perform their duties done unethical means. Perhaps this wrongful act has contributed to the growing disbelief of people towards the information that is being shown in financial statements. The violation could either be intentional, that is when the comptroller voluntarily made the violation or unintentional, if there is no go forthingness to do the wrongful act (e.g., when the employer threatens an employee to do something unethical for the sake of the company). Accounting regulations were established to govern professional accountants into practicing ethical behavior. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is the government agency tasked to promulgate regulations that are set to be followed by organizations particularly the accountants who are most of the time susceptible to trouble. The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 made possible the creation of SEC to formulate and impose securities law. In 2002 former U.S. President George W. Bush passed the Sarba nes-Oxley Act or the Public Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act. The law was established to ensure the credibility of financial statements. Due to the increasing number of fraud related issues in companies, the government finally realized the need to reform the laws that govern organizations and protect the right of investors (Peck 11). Issues in the Accounting Profession There have been recent scandals that relate accounting professionals. This type of profession is never easy to handle and sometimes it places an accountants reputation at stake. In most cases, the cause of complications in the accounting profession is in the making of financial statements. Financial statement misrepresentation is strictly prohibited. Although that rule is clearly emphasized, many seem to disregard it. The violation is avoidable if companies will consciously make an effort to adhere to the said policy. If unluckily an accountant is caught doing this wrongful act, then there is no possible way to get out(p) of this mess. Whatever the case may be, an accountant will still be held liable because an offense has been committed and the harm has already been done. As in the case of a criminal act a suspect is convicted if the commission of a crime is proven beyond reasonable doubt, so a suspect is not yet considered a criminal unless there is enough evidence. Say for example a company that is struggling financially. The only way to solve the problem is to fix the figures in the financial report so that investors will remain faithful to the company. The accountant is left with no other choice, but to do what the employer says. There are two possible consequences to this act. The first consequence is that if the manipulation will push through there are chances of reviving the company and so

Monday, June 10, 2019

Organized Crime and Kentucky Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Organized Crime and Kentucky - Research Paper ExampleWhen considering organized in the United States, ane often hears a discussion centering around the plague families of New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago. In fact, much is known about the organized criminal elements throughout taradiddle in these major cities. We can trace their development, origin, and arrive at various sociological theories to explain away their existence. Less is understood, however, about the reality that organized crime has also flourished throughout the rural areas of America during the course its relatively young existence. Kentucky is certainly a worthy example of this. We know, for example, those criminal elements are not all a part of the states history, but that organized groups continued to develop in Kentucky throughout the 1940s and 50s.Such organizations became a central part of society in the areas of Newport and Covington. Sociologists have long been interested in studying the perplexity that w ould create the need for such organized crime. What has been discovered is that individuals will typically continue to attempt out access to those activities that are either deemed illegal by the government or taboo by current the current standards and mores of society. Examples of these, common during the Kentucky of the 40s and 50s, include extramarital gambling activities, bootleg liquor, prostitution services, and a host of others. The history of Kentucky is certainly layering with various groups that have sought to capitalize on these areas of gambling and vice.

Sunday, June 9, 2019

Global warming Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Global warming - Research Paper ExampleThis phenomenon can be perceived as an increase in the middling temperature on earths control surface, which is caused by the emission of various gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide etc due the burning of fossil fuels. In the unexampled world, technological developments have added pace and diversity to the process of industrialization, which causes the release of toxic gases into the atmosphere. The adverse effects of technology can be seen in urbanization also, which entails disforestation and the consequent negative impact on the environment. Besides, the increasing number of vehicles also contributes to aggravate the problem as it results in massive emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. cause suggests that about three-fourths of the carbon dioxide added to the strain comes from burning fossil fuels such as oil and coal, which argon primarily used in industries and transportation (Kowalski 2004 pg 12). Similarly , deforestation, which occurs in the first place as a result of urbanization, also causes voluminous release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Thus, it becomes apparent that human actions, to a great extent, contribute to major changes in the humour of earth. Global warming, in simple terms, can be defined as the continuing increase in Earths overall temperature (Farrar 2008 pg 7). ... This remains a major concern in the modern world as it has far reaching negative repercussions on the environment, which, in turn, will adversely affect the manner on earth. Therefore, this research mainly focuses on three research questions as under - i) What causes the occurrence of the condition known as Global Warming? ii) What are the effects of Global Warming? iii) What can the humans do to effectively resolve the problem? The researcher has attempted to address these questions through the following lit review, which takes into consideration the available evidence in published books, int ernet articles etc. Review of Literature (Definition of the Problem) Global Warming, as stated earlier, is an increase in the surface temperature of the earth. Research studies indicate that on an average, the surface temperature of planet earth has increased by nearly 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.76 degrees C) in the last 150 years (Farrar 2008 pg 7). However, the uniform study also claims that some places have registered the rise in temperature as high as 5 degrees Fahrenheit or 2.8 degrees C. While almost 99% of earths atmosphere comprises of nitrogen and oxygen, greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone constitute the remaining 1%. The problem arises from the fact that these greenhouse gases retain the heat in the atmosphere, which is essential for humans and other living beings on earth to stay warm and to escape from freezing cold. However, when fossil fuels such as oil and coal are burnt, large volumes of gases get released into earths atmospher e. The presence of such emissions will mean increased capacity of air to store heat, which will enhance the heat in the atmosphere.

Saturday, June 8, 2019

Hopes and Dreams of the United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Hopes and Dreams of the United States - Essay ExampleI desired to pursue except studies and I hope that education be given the first priority by any family in the States without any concern about the funds and avoid home schooling. The lifestyle of those employed and unemployed is no different but some people believe that immigrants lessens their opportunity to get a job, I hope that this misconception be cleared as it only depends upon the qualification of the person.Since ages race has played a major role in America differentiating Blacks and Whites, even immediately there is certain differentiation seen in the society we live. There are certain incidents to portray the discrimination like airlines security ticktock or crime investigation where blacks would be the first to be targeted rather than whites, I hope to see that the discrimination is totally vanished and all are provided with adequate rights. Health care concerns have been going on for a long time majority affectin g the poor and middle class families but until today there isnt any proper solution to the problem, I hope that proper health care needs are provide to every person. The concerns about mortgage has increased as banks started to issue loans to people with poor credit history leading to overall depression, I wish the situation stabilizes making it easy to defile a house of my dreams. My hopes and dreams for United States of America lies in attaining happiness, peace, health, education, family, wealth, jobs and never the less love put together in harmony which might differ from every other person who possess different aspirations and

Friday, June 7, 2019

The Delian League Essay Example for Free

The Delian compact EssayExplain the methods used by the Athenians to transform the Delian League into the Athenian Empire. (25 marks) There is certainty no evidence to suggest that the Athenians had any long-term plans, in the years 479-470 BC, to change the Delian League into an empire, although from the beginning the potential to win into an imperial power were there. Because from the beginning, capital of Greece had considerable power as she was the permanent hegemon.The most important aspects involving the transformation of League into empire was the changing alliances between capital of Greece and her associate, Pericles? mperial policy, Athens selsh egotism interest in gaining more power by using the Leagu power and establishing laws onto her allies such as the Coinage dot and the genus Chalcis Degree. These aspects had portrayed Athens? gradual alteration of the Delian League into an imperial power. Originally the Delian League was formed as an alliance of free and equal kingdoms. At there were just two types of members of the League those contributing ships (larger states) and those contributing money. But over time when Persian threat were no longer in sight, ally states started to progress the League.Athens then force the allies back into the League as tribute paying subject allies. This caused these states to pay tribute with nothing in reelect and lost their autonomy. The event with Naxos, as they were the ? rst to leave, was a warning to other ally states of the consequences of breaking the oath of the alliance. Additionally, the use of the League? s power to reduce the state Thasos to subject status because of a personal quarrel with Athens, indicated a change in the nature of the League.And by 446-445 BC, there is no longer any dubiety or pretence about Athens? imperial position. Although in the beginning, the Athenians did not aim for an empire, these events did however, depicts the starting point of the transformation of Leagu e into an imperial power. Furthermore, the boost of the deteriorating relationship between Athens and her allies can be seen between 450-446, when Athens launched a system of cleruchies, which were settlements of Athenian citizens on con? scated land of subject allied states.The establishments of cleruchies had cause practically resentment from other Grecian states towards Athens. According to Plutarch, this system had relieve the city of a large number of idlers and agitators and raise the standards of the poorest classes, but at the same time it implanted amongst the allies a healthy fear of rebellion. It also allowed Athens to gain more numbers of hoplites, as only Athenian men with money can become a hoplite soldier. This had increased the military force in Athens and had strengthened Athens? old on her empire, as they were located at strategic points in the Aegean.The worsening relationship between Athens? and her allies in the League is due to Athens? sel? sh self interest i n developing her imperial power, and this had allow Athens to gradually grow into an empire. This sel? sh self interest can be seen after the Peace of Callias. At the aim of the League was, according to Thucydides, ? to compensate themselves for their losses by ravaging the territory of the King of Persia? but in 449 BC Persian lost the troth against Cimon in Cyprus and signed a peace treaty called Peace of Callias. Although this meant that the League? s aim had been fullled, the Athenians argued that the Persians would strike again if the Greeks appeared weak. This argument from Athens had an underlying aim, that was so the Greeks states would not leave the League, or else Athens would lose its? power as hegemon and to continue to pay tribute to the League, or in a more absolute sense, to Athens.Athens? gradual sense of alteration of League to empire is also seen in Pericles? imperial policy. The end of the war with Persia and the 5 year truce with Sparta confronted Pericles with a major problem. Thousands of soldiers and sailors, previously away on summer campaigns and supported by League funds, were now unemployed. He used the Temples on the Acropolis that had been in ruins since the second Persian invasion as a way to deal with all the unemployments. However this required funds.Pericles then called on a Panhellenic conference of all Greek states of the mainland and the Aegean to discuss the reconstruct of all temples destroyed by the Persians and the security of the Aegean sea as an underlying intention to get support for the rebuilding of Athens? temples and for the recognition of the Athenian navy as protector of the Aegean. This excuse used by Pericles was to force the allies to continue their contributions in order to advertise his policies of carrying out a building program, developing democracy, and maintaining Athenian forces over a wide area.Plutarch records how Pericles? enemies, denounced his actions as barefooted tyranny. Pericles replied th at the Athenians were not obliged to give an reputation of how the allies? money was spent, and as long as Athens provided the services paid for, she could use the surplus any way she wished. Therefore, the tribute from allies was not used for the Delian League, but to be used for Athens? interest in building up their city. By passing out laws, it had restricted Athens? allies of their freedom by obliging to Athens? rule.This is seen when Athens had passed out a Coinage Decree in 450-446 BC, enforcing uniformity of coinage, weights and measures among the members of the League. This measures had made trade much easier to handle, it was a get ahead example of the allies? loss of freedom. Furthermore, the Chalcis Decree, issued after the Euboean cities revolted, required the inhabitants to take an oath not to revolt against the Athenian demos and to be duteous to the Athenian demos, which revealed no doubt that the original members of the League were now very much subjects of an imp erial power.In conclusion, Athens? gradual transformation of the Delian League into the Athenian Empire can be seen in the deterioration of her relationship with her allies due to her arrogant actions on bene? ting her own interests, Pericles? imperial policy which further his policies of carrying out a building program, developing democracy, and maintaining Athenian forces over a wide area, but also the establishing of laws onto her allies such as the Coinage Degree and the Chalcis Degree.There is no evidence to say that the Athenians had any long-term plan in turning the League into an Empire, but according to Thucydides, Athens had trine very powerful motives security, honour and self-interest, which were the reasons why the Athenians took control of an empire. These events and actions by Athens had led the Delian League, which was once an alliance of free and equal states, into a magisterial imperial power known as the Athenian Empire.

Thursday, June 6, 2019

Emotional, Moral and Physical Changes Essay Example for Free

Emotional, Moral and Physical smorgasbords EssayAdolescence is the name given to the period in the life of human beings between the ages of twelve and eighteen years. It is during the period of adolescence that a human being matures from a child to an adult, usually in both the physical as well as psychological sense of the word. That being said, it follows that this is the clock in ones life when one goes through with(predicate) the most numerous and major changes in terms of cognitive, social, physical, emotional and moral development ( number Points). This article deals with explaining these changes along with relevant examples as well as enumerating options as to and what might be done within an out-of-school c atomic number 18 program to accommodate those changes. Adolescence plays a major role in shaping the future of individuals as the decisions and choices that they make while steering through this phase in life are unfavourable in shaping the people that they become in the future (Turning Points).This leads to the conclusion that this developmental stage is the most critical to the development of the individual going through it as well as the larger society that he or she is a part of. Subsequently, growing adolescents have unique learning needs as each person is different and unique from the other, not only in terms of physical appearance such as their face or ashes but also in terms of their psychological personality. Each person has different strengths, weaknesses, abilities, disabilities, talents and learning potential which needs due attention, especially during this growing stage.The academician years of adolescence are centered on middle school and thus middle schools should ideally be required to provide a secure and human environment so as to develop the talents and strengths of, teach optimal usage of weaknesses and value each individual adolescent that they work for. In the following paragraphs, we impart proceed to analyze the changes that adolescents go through. It is critical to note that all adolescents do not grow or learn at the same rate, neither physically nor psychologically.Due to irregular hormonal, body and mental growth, they become vulnerable and self-conscious, and often experience unpredictable mood swings (Turning Points). These changes also affect the way they perceive their surroundings, devising them sensitive to and conscious of the implications of their actions to the world at large. Cognitive changes occur at varying rates among adolescents and they usually drive to develop the ability of carrying out elevate thought processes as opposed to only concrete ones as is the usual case n the pre-adolescence years.More important to recognize is the fact that this cognitive overture is neither predictable nor dominated by any sense of orderliness. The social aspect of development during adolescence is generally headed by the premise that individuals seek social credenza from their peer s, who assume the role of strong influencers during the years of adolescence. This, combined with the fact that young adolescents become increasingly informed of their bodies and physical appearance make it even more(prenominal) difficult for them to face the changes within themselves and those that they perceive in the world around them.Emotionally, the young adolescent is challenged by the changes he or she is going through devising the simplest of daily life occurrences the most challenging of circumstances. On top of this, adolescents become susceptible to taking bold initiatives on grounds of morality as they begin to feel a heightened sense of compassion and concern for the their surrounding environments. The following table present examples of changes in each of the areas outlined above pre-pubescent and pubescent adolescents along with out-of-school steps that could be fuck offn to care for their developmental needs.Problems of Pre-Pubescent Adolescent Learners Area of C hange Example Out-of-School Care Cognitive Change A Caucasian pre-pubescent girl begins to question her acquaintances prejudice against African Americans Encouraging cross racial relationships and respecting diversity through mentors. Social Change A boy is mentally disturbed about being shorter in height accordingly his class mates. Parents are encouraged to have discussions with the boy about his concern and teach him to picture beyond physical appearances, both in himself and in others around him.Emotional Change An adolescent has lately taken to slamming doors after arguments with his parents which have become a usual occurrence at home. Workshops are arranged for parents to handle the emotional changes in their child, where parents share and learn from each others experiences. Moral Change A Christian girl is contemplating running away from home in protest against her parents prejudice against her Muslim best friend. A mentor is assigned to each adolescent who acts as confida nte , predicts the coming problem and deals with the mater accordinglyPhysical Change A girl becomes aware of her ever-changing body and starts avoiding going out. Mentors and parents are encouraged to take their charges out, have open discussions and take them shopping for their changing needs. Problems of Pubescent Adolescent Learners Area of Change Example Out-of-School Care Cognitive Change As opposed to her parents objections, a pubescent girl feels that there is nothing wrong with having affectionate feelings for a boy.Mentors explain to young girls that parents are only human and shore to be unreasonable and that they should consider that teenage crushes are not true love. Social Change A girl starts making friends with teenagers much older then her, whose habits include drug and alcohol abuse. Workshops are arranged for parents to handle the emotional changes in their child, where parents share and learn from each others experiences. Parents would then realize that the girl feels misunderstood and is trying to fit in and become acceptable to her peers.Emotional Change A boy starts feeling that he is not wanted by anyone and starts avoiding company. Parents are encouraged to have discussions with the boy about his concern and teach him to look beyond physical appearances, both in himself and in others around him. Moral Change A girl takes up smoking under the premise of that she be allowed to make and learn from her own mistakes. Mentors help in making the girl realize that there are more effective ways to channelize the strength of her morals and discuss relevant examples.Physical Change A girl is aware that she needs certain garments but is too embarrassed to purchase them on her own. Mentors and parents are encouraged to take their charges out, have open discussions, take them shopping for their changing needs and volunteer to shop for things they are uncomfortable to buy themselves until they learn that they have nothing to be ashamed of.Bibliogra phyTurning Points, Transforming Middle Schools At the Turning Point, the Young Adolescent Learner. Retrieved January 16, 2007, from http//www. turningpts. org/pdf/YALGuide2. pdf

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

A Model Of Consumer Behavior Online

A Model Of Consumer Behavior OnlineDel Monte operates in a truly competitive global food industry. In plus to manufacturing canned fruits and vegetables for human consumption, Del Monte produces pet food much(prenominal) as Gravy Train, 9 Lives, and Meow Mix. Therefore, using commercialize research the company perpetually looks for innovative ways to cast up its competitive edge. The company in any case decided to implement loving media. Once Del Monte made the end to deploy social media projects, the company had to decide how best to use social media research to carry its diverse produce line-in this case dog food.The SolutionThe basic idea was origin to connect and collaborate with dog lovers via social networks. Since the corporate IT de secernatement was not equipped to deal with social network research, Del Monte hired Market Tools Inc., a market research firm.With the attention of Market Tools Inc., Del Monte began offering an online platform for nodes to chat and comment on blog entries about different Del Monte products. victimization their propriety softwargon, Market Tools monitors millions of relevant blogs in the blogsphere as head as forums in social networks, in order to identify key ideas and issues that consumers be arouse in, test them, and then predict consumer behavior trends. To analyze the collected data, Del Monte teamed up with Umbria (a division of J. D. Power and Associates), a pioneer in drawing market intelligence from the online community. Umbria assisted in further analysis of and in profiling the collected schooling. Such analysis is usually done by using computerized tools such(prenominal) as monitoring consumer inter activitys, analyzing consumers sentiments, and using social analytics methods (e.g., canvass Hedin, et al. 2011 and Jayanti 2010). By utilizing social media, Del Monte can conduct market research much much efficiently. The courtly approach path was to use questionnaires or revolve about grou ps that were expensive and difficult to fill with qualified participants. Using social media, Del Monte can gather much of the equivalent or more qualitative data faster and at a lower set. All that is required now is to monitor guest conversations, collect the data, and analyze the vast amount of tuition. The softwargon likewise facilitates subgroup creation, idea generation, and panel creation. The results of the analysis help Del Monte understand its nodes and consequently plan its marketing activities, communication strategies, and customer service applications. The results also help evaluate the success of marketing campaigns, how well the business mathematical processes accomplished the name and addresss, and better justify proposed modern activities.The ExperimentDel Monte use the above application first to help improve its dog treat, Sna practises eat Bites. For guidance, Del Monte relied on its dog lovers social community. By monitoring customer blogs and by posti ng questions to customers to stimulate discussions, Del Monte employ text analysis methods to investigate the relationship between dogs and their owners. Del Monte concluded that owners of small dogs would be the major acquirers of Snausages Breakfast Bites. The company also nominate differences due to the age of owners, and discovered another(prenominal) people-dogs relationships. Next, a small sample of the improved dog food was produced and tested in the physical market. As a result of both social media and physical research, the product design decisions were revised. Also, marketing promotions were modified. The product sells better because the dogs love it. Finally, the new approach solidified the community of dog lovers who are happy that their opinions are insureed.The ResultsProduct cycle time was reduced by more than 50 percent to precisely 6 months, and Del Monte was able to develop a better marketing communication strategy. Furthermore, the analysis helped the compa ny better understand customers and their buying activities as well as predicting market trends and identifying and anticipating opportunities.Note Similar research on cat food was conducted in 2012 in an online survey, by Kelton Research, using e-mail invitation and an online survey. For details see Meow Mix (2012).Sources Compiled from Steel (2008), Greengard (2008), Hedin et al. (2011), Jayanti (2010), Meow Mix (2012), Wikivest (2012), and Market Tools (2008).What we can learnThe opening case illustrates that market research can be useable in a competitive market by providing insights for better product development and marketing strategy. In this case, the company collected data online from its socially-oriented customers. Market Tools Inc. monitored conversations (over 50 millions of them) on blogs and discussion rooms to find the voice of the customers. The collected data were then analyzed. The results of the analysis helped Del Monte improve its dog food and devise new market ing strategies. Market research, as seen in the case, is related to consumer behavior, get decision making, behavioral marketing, and denote strategies all these enlightenics are addressed in this chapter.9.1 Learning near Consumer Behavior OnlineCompanies are operating in an increasingly competitive environment. Therefore, they please customers and ferment them to buy their goods and services. Finding and retaining customers are major slender success factors for more or less businesses, both offline and online. One of the key elements in building effective customer relationships is an understanding of consumer obtain behavior online.A Model of Consumer Behavior OnlineFor decades, market researchers absorb tried to understand consumer shopping behavior, and have summarized their findings in various warnings. The purpose of a consumer behavior baffle is to help vendors understand how a consumer makes a purchasing decision. If a firm understands the decision process, it may be able to better influence the purchasers decision, for example, through advertising or special promotions.Before examining the consumer behavior gravels variables, lets draw and quarter who the EC consumers are. Online consumers can be divided into two types individual consumers (who get much of the media attention) and organizational buyers, who do most of the actual shopping in network in terms of dollar volume of sales. Organizational buyers include governments, private corporations, resellers, and nonprofit organizations. Purchases by organizational buyers are generally used to add care for to materials or products. Also, organizational buyers may purchase products for resale without any further modifications. We discuss organizational purchasing in detail in Chapter 5 (e-procurement) and get out focus on individual consumers in this chapter.The purpose of a consumer behavior model (for individuals) is to show factors that affect consumer behavior. Exhibit 9.1 shows the basic elements of a consumer behavior model. The model is peaceful of two major parts influential factors and the consumer decision process.Insert Exhibit 9.1 here prestigious factors. Five dimensions are considered to affect consumer behavior. They are consumer characteristics, environmental characteristics, merchant and intermediary characteristics (which are at the top of the exhibit and are considered uncontrollable from the sellers point of view), product/service characteristics (which include market stimuli), and EC systems. The last two are more a lot than not controlled by the sellers. Exhibit 9.1 illustrates the major variables in each influential dimension. A more detailed description is provided in Online File W9.1. The attitude-behavior decision process. The consumer decision process usually starts with a positive attitude and ends with the buyers decision to purchase and/or purchase. A favorable attitude would occur to a stronger buying intention, which in delv e would result in the actual buying behavior. Previous research has shown that the linkages among the previously mentioned trine constructs are quite strong. For example, Ranganathan and Jha (2007) found that past online shopping fingers have the strongest associations with online purchase intention, followed by customer concerns, website quality, and computer self-efficacy. Therefore, developing a positive consumer attitude plays a central role in the final purchase decision.The Major Influential FactorsThese factors fall into the following categoriesPersonal characteristics. Personal characteristics, which are shown in the top-left portion of Exhibit 9.1, refer to demographic factors, individual preferences, and behavioral characteristics. Several websites provide culture on customer buying habits online (e.g.,,, and The major demographics that such sites track are gender, age, marital status, educational level, ethnicity, occupation, and household income, which can be correlated with Internet usage and EC data. Males and females have been found to perceive information differently depending on their levels of purchase confidence and internal knowledge (Barber et al. 2009). A recent survey by Crespo and Bosque (2010) shows that shopping experience has a significant effect on consumer attitude and intention to purchase online.Psychological variables such as soulality and lifestyle characteristics are also studied by marketers. These variables are briefly mentioned in several places throughout the text. The reader who is elicit in the impact of lifestyle differences on online shopping may see Wang et al. (2006).Product/service factors. The second group of factors is related to the product/service itself. Whether a consumer decides to buy is affected by the nature of the product/service in the traffic. These may include the price, quality, design, brand, and other related attributes of the product.Merchant and interm ediary factors. Online transactions may also be affected by the merchant that provides the product/service. This group of factors includes merchant reputation, size of transaction, blaspheme in the merchant, and so on. For example, people feel more secure when they purchase from (due to its reputation) than from a no-name seller. Other factors such as marketing strategy and advertising can also play a major role.EC systems. The EC platform for online transactions (e.g., security protection, salary mechanism, and so forth) offered by the merchant may also have effects. EC design factors can be divided into motivational and hygiene factors. Motivational factors were found to be more important than hygiene factors in attracting online customers (Liang and Lai 2002). Perceived usability is lastly related to user preference for commercial websites (Lee and Koubek 2010).Motivational factors. Motivational factors are the functions ready(prenominal) on the website to provide direct support in the transactional process (e.g., search engine, shopping carts, multiple payment methods).Hygiene factors. Hygiene factors are functions available on the website whose main purpose is to prevent possible trouble in the process (e.g., security and product status tracking).Environmental factors. The environment in which a transaction occurs may affect a consumers purchase decision. As shown in Exhibit 8.1, environmental variables can be grouped into the following categoriesSocial variables. People are influenced by family members, friends, coworkers, and whats in fashion this year. Therefore, social variables (such as customer endorsement, word-of-mouth) play an important role in EC. Of special importance in EC are Internet communities (see Chapter 7) and discussion groups, in which people communicate via chat rooms, electronic bulletin boards, twitting, and newsgroups. These topics are discussed in various places in the text.Cultural/community variables. It makes a big difference in what people buy if a consumer lives near Silicon Valley in California or in the mountains in Nepal. Chinese shoppers may differ from French shoppers, and rural shoppers may differ from urban ones.Other environmental variables. These include aspects such as available information, government regulations, court-ordered constraints, and situational factors.Comp please shade the bullet listSection 9.1 Review Questions1. Describe the major components and structure of the consumer online purchasing behavior model.2. List some major personal characteristics that influence consumer behavior.3. List the major environmental variables of the purchasing environment.4. List and describe tailfin major merchant-related variables.5. Describe the relationships among attitude, intention, and actual behavior in the behavior process model.9.2 The Consumer purchasing finish-Making ProcessConsumer behavior is a major element in the process of consumers decisions to purchase orrepurc hase.A Generic Purchasing-Decision ModelFrom the consumers perspective, a general purchasing-decision model consists of five major phases (Hawkins and Mothersbaugh 2010). In each phase, we can distinguish several activities and, in some, one or more decisions. The five phases are (1) need identification, (2) information search, (3) evaluation of alternatives, (4) purchase and delivery, and (5) postpurchase activities. Although these phases offer a general guide to the consumer decision-making process, one should not feign that every consumers decision-making process will necessarily proceed in this order. In fact, some consumers may proceed to a specific phase and then revert to a previous phase, or they may skip a phase altogether. The phases are discussed in more details next. Need identification. The first phase occurs when a consumer is faced with an imbalance between the actual and the desired states of a need. A marketers goal is to get the consumer to recognize such imbalanc e and then convince the consumer that the product or service the seller offers will fill this gap. training search. After identifying the need, the consumer searches for information on the various alternatives available to satisfy the need. Here, we differentiate between two decisions what product to buy (product brokering) and from whom to buy it (merchant brokering). These two decisions can be separate or combined. In the consumers search for information, catalogs, advertising, promotions, and reference groups could influence decision making. During this phase, online product search and comparison engines, see examples at,, and, can be very helpful. (See decision aids in Chapter 3.) Evaluation of Alternatives. The consumers information search will eventually generate a smaller set of preferred alternatives. From this set, the would-be buyer will further evaluate the alternatives and, if possible, negotiate terms. In this phase, a consumer will use the collected information to develop a set of criteria. These criteria will help the consumer evaluate and compare alternatives. For online consumers, the activities may include evaluation of product prices and features. Purchase and delivery. After evaluating the alternatives, the consumer will make the purchasing decision, arrange payment and delivery, purchase warranties, and so on. Postpurchase activities. The final phase is a postpurchase phase, which consists of customer service and evaluation of the usefulness of the product. Customer services and consumer enjoyment will result in positive experience and word-of-mouth (e.g., This product is really great or We really received good service when we had problems.). If the customer is satisfied with the product and services, committal will increase and repeat purchases will occur afterward.Comp please shade the bullet listSeveral other purchasing-decision models have been proposed. A classic (1925) model for describing consumer message processing is the Attention-Interest-Desire-Action (AIDA) model at Wikipedia (see AIDA at Wikipedia). It argues that consumer processing of an advertising message (part of the information search phase) includes the following four stages1. A-Attention (Awareness). The first step is to get the customers attention.2. I-Interest. By demonstrating features, values, and benefits, the customer becomes interested in the product.3. D-Desire. Convice the customers that they want the product or service and that it will suit their needs.4. A-Action. Finally, the consumer will take action toward purchasing.Now, some researchers also add another garner to form AIDA(S), where5. S- ecstasy. Customer satisfaction will generate higher loyalty and lead to repurchase after using a product/service. (Loyalty, satisfaction, and trust are discussed in Online File W9.2.)A recent version of AIDA is the AISAS model proposed by the Dentsu Group that is tailored to online behavior. The model replaces decision with search and adds share to show the change magnitude word-of-mouth effect on the Internet. It indicates that consumers go through a process of Attention-Interest-Search-Action-Share in their online decision process. This model is particularly suitable for social commerce.Customer Decision Support in Web PurchasingThe preceding generic purchasing-decision model was widely used in research on consumer-based EC. In the Web-based environment, decision support is available in each phase. The framework that is illustrated in Online File W9.3 shows that each of the phases of the purchasing model, which were described earlier, can be supported by both a consumer decision support system (CDSS) that facilitates the process and Internet and Web-aiding facilities. The CDSS facilities support the specific decisions in the process. Generic EC technologies and analytics provide the necessary mechanisms as well as enhanced communication and collaboration tools. Specific implem entation of this framework and explanations of some of the terms are provided throughout this chapter and the entire text.The planner of B2C marketing needs to consider the Web purchasing models in order to better influence the customers decision-making process (e.g., by effective one-to-one advertising and marketing).Insert Exhibit 9.2 hereOnline File W9.1 shows a model for a website that supports buyer searching and decision making. This model revises the generic model by describing a purchasing framework. The model is divided into three parts. The first includes three stages of buyer behavior (see top of exhibit) identify and manage buying criteria, search for products and merchants, and compare alternatives. Below these activities are boxes with decision support options that support the three top boxes (such as product representation)..The second part of the model (on the right) has a box that includes price, financial terms, shipping and warranty negotiations. These become rele vant when alternatives are compared. The third part at the bottom of the exhibit, major concerns are cited.Players in the Consumer Decision ProcessSeveral different people may play roles in various phases of the consumer decision process. The following are five major roles1. Initiator. The person who first suggests or thinks of the idea of buying a particular product or service.2. Influencer. A person whose advice or view carries some weight in making a final purchasing decision.3. Decider. The person who ultimately makes a buying decision or any part of it-whether to buy, what to buy, how to buy, or where to buy.4. Buyer. The person who makes an actual purchase.5. User. The person who consumes or uses a product or service.Comp please shade the number listA superstar person may play all the roles if the product or service is for personal use. In this case, the marketer needs to understand and target such individuals. In many situations, however, different people may play different roles. For example, a newly graduated engineer proposed to buy a car for his mother, which was followed by suggestions from his pay back and friends. Finally, he followed his fathers suggestion to buy the car. When more than one individual comes into play, it becomes more difficult to properly target advertising and marketing. antithetic marketing efforts may be designed to target people who are playing different roles.Section 9.2 Review Questions1. List the five phases of the generic purchasing-decision model.2. Use an example to explain the five phases in the generic purchasing-decision model.3. Describe the supporting functions available in Web-based purchasing.4. Describe AIDA and AISAS models and analyze their differences in illustrating an online purchasing behavior.5. Describe the major players in a purchasing decision.9.3 LOYALTY, SATISFACTION, AND TRUST IN E-COMMERCEGood online marketing activity can generate positive effects, which are generally observed as trust, custo mer satisfaction, and loyalty. Loyalty is the goal of marketing, while trust and customer satisfaction are factors that may affect customer loyalty.CUSTOMER LOYALTYOne of the major objectives of marketing is to increase customer loyalty (recall the Netflix case). Customer loyalty refers to a deep commitment to repurchase or repatronize a preferred product/service continually in the future, thereby causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing, despite situational influences and marketing efforts that have the potential to cause skying behavior. Customer acquisition and retention is a critical success factor in e-tailing. The expense of acquiring a new customer can be more than $100 even for, which has a wide reach, it is more than $15. In contrast, the cost of maintaining an existing customer at is $2 to $4.Attracting and retaining loyal customers remains the most important issue for any selling company, including e-tailers. change magnitude cus tomer loyalty can result in cost savings to a company in various ways lower marketing and advertising costs, lower transaction costs, lower customer turnover expenses, lower failure costs such as warranty claims, and so on. Customer loyalty also strengthens a companys market position because loyal customers are kept away from the competition. In addition, customer loyalty can lead to high resistance to competitors, a decrease in price sensitivity, and an increase in favorable word of mouth.Loyalty designs were introduced more than 100 years ago and are widely used among airlines, retailers, hotel chains, banks, casinos, car rentals, restaurants, and credit card companies. But now, loyalty programs have been computerized and expanded to all kinds of businesses. For example, octopus Hong Kong (, a stored-value card operator, launched a reward program for consumers aimed at increasing card usage across Hong Kong. Reward points are gained by purchasing at a number of leading merchants across the territory, including Wellcome, Watsons, UA Cinemas, and McDonalds. Each Octopus card can store up to 1,000 rewards points, which can be redeemed on the next purchase. FANCL, see the company, a Japanese cosmetics and health-care company, offers the FANCL point program where consumers earn FANCL points that are saved for gift redemption.However, the introduction of Internet technologies and social networking has the potential to undermine brands and discourage customer loyalty. The customers ability to shop, compare, get quick advice from friends, and switch to different vendors becomes easier, faster, and less expensive, given the aid of search engines and other technologies. Furthermore, customers are less loyal to the brand because of the lower switching costs for them to take advantage of special online offers and promotions, as well as to try new things.It is interesting to note that companies have found that loyal customers end up buying more when they have an optional website from which to shop. For example, W.W. Grainger, a large industrial-supply company, found that loyal B2B customers increased their purchases substantially when they began using Graingers website ( (See Chapter 4 for more information.) Also, loyal customers may refer other customers to a site, especially with word of mouth in social networks. Therefore, it is important for EC companies to increase customer loyalty. The Web offers ample opportunities to do so.E-LoyaltyE-loyalty refers to a customers loyalty to an e-tailer or a manufacturer that sells now online, or to loyalty programs delivered online or supported electronically. Companies can foster e-loyalty by learning about their customers needs, interacting with customers, and providing superb customer service. Another source of information is, which concentrates on loyalty marketing.In an online environment, merchant ratings can be the source of interpersonal com munication and are obtained from other consumers, not just friends and family. It is interesting to note that positive customer reviews have considerable impact on repurchase intention. It is not the total number of reviews that influences customer repurchase intention, but the percentage of positive reviews. This increases e-loyalty. (For reviews and barrackations in social networks, see Chapter 7.)Also, online ratings and word of mouth may undermine the effects of competitors low prices. For example, has higher prices than, but is silence preferred by many customers. The difference is that has customer reviews and other personalization services, and does not.Many factors may affect customer loyalty and e-loyalty. A typical model is to denounce the relationship quality between retailers and their customers, which often is composed of trust, satisfaction, and commitment. Satisfaction and trust are particularly important because t hey will lead to commitment. For example, a recent field of battle by Cyr (2008) found that e-loyalty is affected by trust and satisfaction across different cultures. Hence, we shall further discuss these two factors.SATISFACTION IN ECSatisfaction is one of the most important success measures in the B2C online environment. Customer satisfaction is associated with several key outcomes (e.g., repeat purchase, positive word of mouth, and so on) and it can lead to higher customer loyalty. A survey indicates that 80 percent of highly satisfied online consumers would shop again within two months, and 90 percent would recommend Internet retailers to others. However, 87 percent of dissatisfied consumers would permanently leave their Internet retailers without any complaints (Cheung and Lee 2005).Satisfaction has received considerable attention in studies of consumer-based EC. For example, know Results, an online customer satisfaction measurement company, developed the American Customer Sa tisfaction Index (ACSI) ( for measuring customer satisfaction with EC. The Customer Respect Group ( also provides an index to measure customers online experiences. The Customer Respect Index (CRI) includes the following components simplicity, responsiveness, transparency, principles, attitude, and privacy.Researchers have proposed several models to explain the formation of satisfaction with online shopping. For example, Cheung and Lee (2005) proposed a framework for consumer satisfaction with Internet shopping by correlating the end-user satisfaction perspective with the service quality viewpoint. The framework is shown in Exhibit 9.3.The ability to predict consumer satisfaction can be useful in designing websites as well as advertising and marketing strategies. However, website designers should also pay attention to the nature of website features including navigational, visual, and information design (Cyr 2008). Different features have different impa cts on customer (dis)satisfaction. If certain website features, such as reliability of content, loading speed, and usefulness fail to perform properly, customer satisfaction will drop dramatically. In contrast, if features such as those make the usage enjoyable, entertaining, and useful, they could result in a significant jump in customer satisfaction.Insert Exhibit 9.3 here Factors that excise Consumer Satisfaction with Internet ShoppingTRUST IN ECTrust is the psychological status of depending on another person or organization to progress to a planned goal. When people trust each other, they have confidence that their transaction partners will keep their promises. However, both parties in a transaction assume some risk. In the electronic marketplace, sellers and buyers do not meet face to face. The buyer can see a picture of the product but not the product itself. Promises of quality and delivery time can be easily made-but will they be kept? To deal with these issues, EC vendors need to establish high levels of trust with current and potential customers. Trust is particularly important in global EC transactions due to the difficulty of taking legal action in cases of a dispute or fraud and the potential for conflicts caused by differences in culture and business environments.In addition to sellers and buyers trusting each other, both must have trust in the EC computing environment and in the EC infrastructure. For example, if people do not trust the security of the EC infrastructure, they will not feel comfortable about using credit cards to make EC purchases.EC Trust ModelsTrust in e-commerce is often called online trust. Several models have been put forth to explain the factors that may affect online trust. For example, Lee and Turban (2001) examined the various aspects of EC trust and developed the model shown in Online File W9.2. According to this model, the level of trust is determined by numerous variables (factors) shown on the left side and in the middle of the exhibit. The exhibit illustrates the complexity of trust relationships, especially in B2C EC.Enter Exhibit 9.4 here EC Trust ModelA newer model expands previous ones to include internal and external factors. Internal factors are directly related to online services provided by the vendor, and external factors are those that have indirect relationships (Salo and Karjaluoto 2007).How to Increase Trust in ECConsumer trust is fundamental to successful online retail it is considered the currency of the Internet. The following are representative strategies for building consumer trust in EC.Improve Your Website. The most important factor that affects online trust is the quality of the website. Cyr (2008) found that the navigational, visual, and information design of a website affect consumer trust. Gregg and Walczak (2010) reported a positive relationship between website quality and trust. Higher perceived website quality induces higher trust and price premium based on a surve y of 701 eBay users. Therefore, how to design the EC website that delivers high-quality information and navigational experience