Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Organization design ((anthonys pizza) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Organization design ((anthonys pizza) - Essay Example If these workers had some basic training for making simple things in the kitchen, it would go a long way in reducing wastage of time. In turn, customers would not experience enforcement, which is to stand in line for a long time. Overall, the time wastage and the high training costs may receive quick resolution. Currently, after the training, the new employees have three trials and then the management may subjectively decide whether to retain the employees or dismiss them. At that point, the pizzeria loses money used to train employee. If the employees after the hiring and training process, were given contracts to sign, which implied the subjective letting go would not exist anymore, Anthony’s pizza would save significant cash. In addition, Anthony’s pizza may only hire the employees they need all year round, and hire a few casual labourers during the peak period. When Anthony’s pizza is making a decision to train an employee, this does not entail formal evaluation. Before employees’ introduction to the work environment, they ought to undergo meticulous evaluation. This will reduce the probability of placing employees who have undergone inadequate training meant for the working settings. This is because it is in the nature of poorly trained employees to be wasteful. They also have a higher probability of making mistakes, which wastes foods and other products and wastes time. The wastage may be reduced by properly evaluating employees before placing them in the working environment. In addition, most employees who are let go are always bitter and claim that everything seemed perfect until they were let go. This means that they never saw it coming. This is especially due to being put in the working environment before proper evaluation. The management should review the performance of the new employees during trials and tell them are as that need improvement instead of firing them. This again will

Monday, October 28, 2019

Native American Essay Example for Free

Native American Essay â€Å"During the second half of the 19th century, the United States Government took all appropriate actions to maintain peace with Native American tribes. Furthermore the United States was justified in its aggressive measures used to seize land from unruly Native American tribes during the era. † There little validity in this statement. During this time period American troops were interloping on Native American territory, starting violence, and forcing them out of their homes. The hostility of American Soldiers toward these people led to several tragedies, such as the Sand Creek Massacre, The Battle of Little Bighorn, and The Battle at Wounded Knee. It can be observed that the United States was clearly not, in any way, shape, or form, attempting to maintain peace. Insensitivities on behalf of the United States led to several tragedies, the Sand Creek Massacre being a major event. On November 29, 1864, General John Chivington ordered troops to attack Chief Black Kettle and his people, after the chief and his people did everything in their power to keep peace between the opposing sides. To top it all off, most of the warriors in this tribe were off hunting buffalo, and the tribe was left undefended. Between seventy and eighty Natives were killed. The fighting didn’t end there. Several years later, on December 29, 1890, a great disaster occurred at nearby Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota. James W. Forsyth and his men massacred the people of Chief Spotted Elk. Around 300 casualties were suffered. The Natives, however, hadn’t always suffered such devastating losses. Between the Sand Creek Massacre and Wounded Knee, at the Battle of Little Bighorn, Colonel George Custer was one of the leaders of the American soldiers who attacked Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, and their people. On June 25-26, 1876, American Soldiers fought the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes, suffering a severe loss. Although it may seem as though the Native Americans were ruthless savages, this proves how persistent they were and their ability to overcome. The persistence of these people was also proven by a single man. In 1876, the United States Government was beginning to force Chiricahua from their reservation in New Mexico. A man named Geronimo fueled the fire of the Native Americans against the American forces. Over a period of ten years, Geronimo aided his people in many raids on white settlements, to prove their unwillingness to leave their home. Geronimo may have surrendered, but his bravery Although many may view these as acts of violence, in reality, US Soldiers were no better. The slaughter and removal of hundreds of Native Americans caused them to react in such a violent way. In other words, America brought this upon itself. The Dawes Act was a set of laws enacted to assist Native Americans in their land disputes with American settlers. These laws gave the president the right to survey Indian land and distribute it to individual Natives. The Dawes Act was detrimental to Native Americans because those who weren’t awarded land became homeless, unlike the previous tribal community they had lived in, where every person had shelter, but no single person owned the land. The president also had the right to purchase land he had allotted to be used for white settlers. Assimilation also played a large role in whether Natives would be forced out of their homes. If the Natives would â€Å"Americanize† (so to speak) everything about their lifestyle, they would be permitted to stay on US soil. In conclusion, it can be observed that Native Americans were truly the victim in this situation. They were slaughtered mercilessly, forced out of their homes, made to change their lifestyles, and even considered to be the cause of the violence. Any person who claims Native Americans during this time period as savage murderers would be completely incorrect. These people were merely reacting out of defense and retaliation for what Americans had done to them. Americans frequently like to believe that the US is always justified in what they are doing; they are always the good guy. In this case Americans stooped to a low level to suggest that Indians were to blame for the violence.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Prejudice and Racism in Heart of Darkness, A Grain of Wheat, and A smal

The Literary Response to Racism in Heart of Darkness, A Grain of Wheat, and A small place   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Racism and prejudice can be regarded as both societal and individual phenomena, developed and manifested at all levels of society; from government policy through organizational structures, inter-group and interpersonal interactions to intra-personal attitudes and feelings. Media and literature react to these perceptions and have taken part in shaping the attitudes and feelings of society. The novels "Heart of Darkness" by Joseph Conrad, "A Grain of Wheat" by Ngugi wa Thiong'o, and Jamaica Kincaid's essay "A small place" represent a literary response to the insidious tool of racism in colonial and postcolonial history.    Racism has typically been reflected by structural inequalities rooted in history and been perpetuated over time. The belief that one group was inferior to another was essential in order to justify the process of dispossessing indigenous groups of their land during colonization. The colonial powers instituted and maintained differentials between different ethnic and cultural groups by parceling out admission to education or employment, and by restricting access to law and medical care. These inequalities consequently served to emphasize difference rather than similarity among the colonized and the colonizer, thus reinforcing stereotypes of superiority or inferiority. The policies and practices were aimed to reflect a belief that the dominant culture is the "normal" one, which served as a standard by which all else could be judged.    Ngugi wa Thiong'o is an African post-colonialist writer who portrays his experience of colonial racism from a native's view. In his novel A Grain of Wheat, he picture... ...o. 7 The Post Colonial Studies Reader: Editors Bill Ashcroft; Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin. Publisher: Routledge New York, 1999 DiBeta, Karen: A Grain of Wheat: Dispelling the Great Myth   Accessed June 29, 2001 Human Rights Watch: Leave No One to Tell the Story. Genocide in Ruanda.Doc.# 171-1   Ã‚  Accessed June 19, 2001 Eurofic: European Forum for International Cooperation. Platform of the European Commission on Development and Cooperation, 115 Rue Stepin, Brussels, Belgium   Accessed June 21, 2001 Omoregie, F.K: Rodney, Cabral and Ngugi as Guides to African Postcolonial Literature English Department, University of Botswana   Accessed June 28, 2001   

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Romeo and Juliet Answer-to-Study-Guide

Romeo and Juliet – Answer Key to Study Guide 1. Although they are servants, they maintain the Montague/Capulet feud. 2. Gregory 3. These men are too quick to fight. 4. The punishment for more fighting is death. 5. quick-tempered 6. moody and depressed 7. Juliet is too young for marriage, she is his only hope, and she must give her consent also. 8. to see Rosaline 9. He falls in love too easily. 10. They fall in love. 11. an infatuated Romeo 12. The names of things do not change their basic traits. 13. metaphor 14. hyperbole 15. love 16. to foreshadow the use of an herbal brew 17. perform a marriage 18. making a pun on Tybalt’s name 9. Juliet has no interest in Paris. 20. She should meet Romeo at Friar Lawrence’s to get married. 21. a villain 22. He tells Tybalt that he loves him. 23. Tybalt draws his sword, and Romeo moves to stop him. 24. The day seems endless. 25. Juliet thinks that the nurse is saying that Romeo is dead. 26. oxymorons 27. sorrowful 28. Juliet does not feel that Romeo is a villain. 29. She is already married to Romeo but her parents do not know. 30. marry Paris 31. a marriage 32. She does not want to marry Paris. 33. imagery 34. Juliet will drink an herbal potion, she will be buried in the Capulet tomb, and Romeo will return from Mantua. 5. She is afraid. 36. finding herself in the tomb among the bodies of her relatives 37. dramatic irony 38. personification 39. uncontrolled sorrow 40. comic relief 41. Balthasar tells Romeo that Juliet is dead. 42. He is taking action without thinking clearly. 43. to buy poison 44. Friar John returns without having delivered Friar Lawrence’s letter to Romeo. 45. Paris 46. to become a nun 47. She stabs herself with Romeo’s dagger. 48. Lady Montague 49. There never was a sadder story than this. 50. Love at first sight is not real love.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Business Ethics Term Paper Essay

So how did all of this pollution develop? One of the ways that Walmart has caused so much pollution is from their increased travel of customers and delivery trucks. Other pollution causes are non-point source water pollution, sprawl and auto pollution, and there is a large amount of energy use going on in the company. And while there are arguments about how Walmart is being reckless with the environment, there is also some good that Walmart is trying to do regarding the environment. While Walmart may not be as efficient as it would like to be when dealing with the environment they are trying to take steps towards it to make sure they are complying with all of the environmental standards. Walmart has a goal to be supplied 100% by renewable energy, to create zero waste, and to try to sell products that sustain people and the environment. These are some possible resolutions to this issue. A website that I found interesting pertaining to this was www. walmartwatch. com. The website states that its mission is to â€Å"hold Walmart fully accountable for its impact on communities, the American workforce, the retail sector, the environment and the nation’s economy. † I think ethically this is a good thing for someone to keep such a large company accountable for what it does. The next ethical issue that I came across was how Walmart exploits its workers and suppliers. Walmart is the world’s largest retail industry but it seems that they fail to use this for the good of its employees. According to Walmart watch the average pay a sales associate gets for being employed at Walmart is $8. 1 an hour. That comes to about $15,500 a year which is based on a full time status there of 34 hours. And most of the employees at Walmart aren’t even full time employees; most of it is part-time jobs which makes their annual salary even less. The problem that people have with this is that Walmart could be paying its employees more than they do n ow and this is where the ethical dilemma comes into play. The problem people may have with this is that in 2010 Walmart’s CEO Mike received 18. 7 million in total compensation. Walmart has also cut two of its longest standing benefits for employees. The first one that got cut was its profit sharing program, and the other one that got cut was that as of 2011, no new employees would any extra an hour for their work on Sundays. Another problem that arises with exploitation is that Walmart has unfair leverage on their suppliers and forces supplier outsourcing. On the other side of this issue is that Walmart does a good job in providing employment. Walmart employs 2. 1 million associates worldwide. This is a good thing that Walmart provides so many jobs especially in a tough economy. Some would argue that it has positive effects on our economy. It seems that everywhere I read that the negatives of employment at Walmart overpower the good. And because of this it is an ethical concern. I think that some of the possible resolutions would be to raise the wage for the employees so that they could be able to afford more. Also they should have kept their employee benefits that they cut. While Walmart may not take care of its employees as well as they should, there is really not argument for their corporate philanthropy. Some of the things they have done is that they donated approximately $800 million in value in 2011 and were name the biggest cash contributor by Chronicle of Philanthropy. Walmart also gave a $2 billion commitment to help end hunger in America. Walmart seems to be doing a very good job in dealing with its philanthropic responsibilities. Another ethical issue that I am going to discuss is the issue of Walmart being a monopoly and how because of this it is destroying other business around it. The reason people think that Walmart is a monopoly is that it owns the majority of the market shares. The reason people think this is because it is the largest in the world in sales by 50% more than its 5 closest competitors combined which includes Target and Sears Holding. Some reasons that it is considered to be a monopoly is that it dwarfs its competition and it affects the products prices and its choices. Walmart has the power to control prices or to get rid of the competition because of it. Walmart’s revenue $404 billion compared to other businesses is so much higher. For example, Macy’s brings in $25 billion in revenues while Sears brings in $46 billion. Because of Walmart’s large size and its buying power, Walmart is able to buy their products at very low prices. Walmart is able to strong arm its suppliers because of its ability to influence it. And while this may be a good thing for Walmart and the people that shop there, how does it affect other businesses in the area? Many people claim that the size of Walmart is hurting white collar businesses. Almost all businesses, big or small are impacted by what Walmart does. Walmart’s competitors are often forced to lower their prices because of Walmart’s ability to keep them so low and because these businesses aren’t as profitable as Walmart, they are often closed because of the lack of profit. The final ethical issue that comes up when talking about Walmart is the affect of Walmart’s low prices. Like stated above a consequence of the low prices are that it can destroy jobs but it also can affect the suppliers profits because of Walmart’s ability to force suppliers to go down on their prices. Because of these low prices thousands of manufacturing jobs have been moved overseas. An article that was written by Emer Basker talks about Walmart and if it is creating jobs or is it destroying jobs and also about the labor market effects on Walmart expansion. And on the other side of this issue the lower prices can be beneficial. Walmart’s slogan is saving money so people can live better. Yes the lower costs help people save money, but at what cost? According to forbes. com, Walmart is actually good for the economy. The lower prices that Walmart can offer to the public ends up benefiting everyone. An exchange of goods at low prices benefits everyone. Even though Walmart low prices seem to benefit everyone it still doesn’t have a very good reputation with the public. In a study done that I found on forbes. com, 24% of Americans think the company is bad for the economy, and 31% had an unfavorable view of it. So what are the stakeholders that are affected by all of these ethical issues? Some of the major stakeholders of Walmart are the owners of Walmart and the CEO, the employees and managers, and suppliers. Some of the secondary stakeholders would be other businesses and customers. Owners would have the most power, legitimacy, and urgency. The CEO and other owners would have the most power to get something done. They would be able to affect the business because they own the majority of the market share. They would also have the highest legitimacy; all of the things they say will be heard and taken care of. They would have the highest urgency in that they would get the businesses immediate attention. I don’t think that if any resolutions of the issues above would have any effect on the power, legitimacy, and urgency of the CEO or the owners. The employees and managers would have a lot less of the power. By doing research on this topic it seems to me that the employees aren’t really treated that well and that they really don’t have that much power. It’s the same for legitimacy and urgency in that they really don’t have much of that either. I don’t think that Walmart really takes into play the employees very much as stakeholders and if the employees ever wanted to get something changed they would have a hard time doing so because of their low power, legitimacy, and urgency. I don’t think that resolving any of the issues above would affect the employees as stakeholders. Some of the secondary stakeholders are other businesses and customers. I think first that the other businesses have absolutely none of the three. Walmart has dwarfed the competition so much that they could do nothing to affect any decision that Walmart would make. I think the customers have at least a little bit of power. They are the ones buying the product so if they voice their displeasure with something then they may be able to get something done. It’s the same with urgency and legitimacy. Some activist groups like the Walmartwatchers. org group might have some power to get something accomplished. They are able to keep Walmart accountable for what they do by keeping track of everything Walmart does. Walmartwatchers. org keeps track of all of the facts on Walmart like their community impact, environmental records, and workplace conditions. I think that because of this they may have some sort of power in making things happen within the business. I think that Walmart uses a utilitarianism approach when it looks at what it’s doing. Utilitarianism says that the best course of action to take is one that provides the greatest good for the greatest number. The attractiveness of utilitarianism is that it makes the decision maker, in this case Walmart, to think about the general welfare. Utilitarianism takes the approach to think in stakeholder terms. They look at owners, employees, customers, and other stakeholders and they see what is best for them and for the company. I think Walmart uses this approach because it is the best way for them to make a profit. By looking at the greatest good for the greatest number they are able to do what they do even though it may not be popular to some people. The only problem with the utilitarianism approach is that it may come into conflict with justice. People think that an increase in total good is not good because it does not take into account any distribution of good. Another ethical approach that I think Walmart uses is the market ethic approach. The market ethic says that selfish action in the marketplace is virtuous because they contribute to efficient operation of the economy. Decision makers might take selfish actions in order for them to make a persona gain in their business dealings. I think that Walmart could use this ethical approach because I think they are selfish in their thinking in that if it causes personal gain then it doesn’t matter if it is selfish or not. As far as the ethical tests go, I think an important ethical test that could be considered would be the test of making something public. This test asks if you would still make the decision even if you know that everyone would be able to see it. This test addresses the issue of whether or not your decision could take scrutiny from the public. I think Walmart should use this ethical test as a way to help them make decisions. They could use this test in almost all of the issues that were mentioned above. If they would make public about how they were dealing with the environment or how they were dealing with their employees then I think it would help them make better decisions. So how can you look at this with a spiritual perspective? I think as Christians we need to look at what Walmart is doing and look at it through our Christina worldview. I think that some of the things that Walmart does like not taking care of the environment as well as they should and not treating their employees as well as they should go against what is found in the Bible. The Bible says to be good stewards of earth and it also talks a lot about treating people fairly. So how should a Christian seek to resolve these issues? I think that trying to resolve it by yourself would be very difficult if not impossible to get anything done. I think that by forming an activist group with other believers you could get you point out better than if you were trying to do it alone. Ultimately after doing research on Walmart, I think that Walmart has a lot to fix. But I also think that Walmart is beneficial to the economy and it doing a good job with supplying its low prices to people. It just needs to be careful that it does not become a monopoly and destroy jobs and other businesses around it. In my opinion I think Walmart is a good company that is doing a lot to help the economy.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Explaining the Start of Apartheid in South Africa

Explaining the Start of Apartheid in South Africa The doctrine of apartheid (separateness in Afrikaans) was made law in South Africa in 1948, but the subordination of the black population in the region was established during European colonization of the area. In the mid-17th century, white settlers from the Netherlands drove the Khoi and San people out of their lands and stole their livestock, using their superior military power to crush resistance. Those who were not killed or driven out were forced into slave labor. In 1806, the British took over the Cape Peninsula, abolishing slavery there in 1834 and relying instead on force and economic control to keep the Asian and Africans in their places. After the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902, the British ruled the region as the Union of South Africa and the administration of that country was turned over to the local white population. The Constitution of the Union preserved long-established colonial restrictions on black political and economic rights. The Codification of Apartheid During World War II, a vast economic and social transformation occurred as a direct result of white South African participation. Some 200,000 white males were sent to fight with the British against the Nazis, and at the same time, urban factories expanded to make military supplies. The factories had no choice but to draw their workers from rural and urban African communities. Africans were legally prohibited from entering cities without proper documentation and were restricted to townships controlled by the local municipalities, but strict enforcement of those laws overwhelmed the police and they relaxed the rules for the duration of the war. Africans Move Into the Cities As increasing numbers of rural dwellers were drawn into urban areas, South Africa experienced one of the worst droughts in its history, driving nearly a million more South Africans into the cities. Incoming Africans were forced to find shelter anywhere; squatter camps grew up near major industrial centers but had neither proper sanitation nor running water. One of the largest of these squatter camps was near Johannesburg, where 20,000 residents formed the basis of what would become Soweto. The factory workforce grew by 50 percent in the cities during WWII, largely because of expanded recruitment. Before the war, Africans had been prohibited from skilled or even semi-skilled jobs, legally categorized as temporary workers only. But the factory production lines required skilled labor, and the factories increasingly trained and relied on Africans for those jobs without paying them at the higher skilled rates. Rise of African Resistance During World War II, the African National Congress was led by Alfred Xuma (1893-1962), a medical doctor with degrees from the United States, Scotland, and England. Xuma and the ANC called for universal political rights. In 1943, Xuma presented the wartime Prime Minister Jan Smuts with Africans Claims in South Africa, a document which demanded full citizenship rights, fair distribution of the land, equal pay for equal work, and the abolishment of segregation. In 1944, a young faction of the ANC led by Anton Lembede and including Nelson Mandela formed the ANC Youth League, with stated purposes for the invigorating of an African national organization and developing forceful popular protests against segregation and discrimination. Squatter communities set up their own system of local government and taxation, and the Council of Non-European Trade Unions had 158,000 members organized in 119 unions, including the African Mine Workers Union. The AMWU struck for higher wages in the gold mines and 100,000 men stopped work. There were over 300 strikes by Africans between 1939 and 1945, even though strikes were illegal during the war. Anti-African Forces Police took direct action, including opening fire on demonstrators. In an ironic twist, Smuts had helped write the Charter of the United Nations, which asserted that the people of the world deserved equal rights, but he did not include non-white races in his definition of people, and eventually South Africa abstained from voting on the charters ratification. Despite South Africas participation in the war on the side of the British, many Afrikaners found the Nazi use of state socialism to benefit the master race attractive, and a Neo-Nazi grey-shirt organization formed in 1933, which gained increasing support in the late 1930s, calling themselves Christian Nationalists. Political Solutions Three political solutions for suppressing the African rise were created by different factions of the white power base. The United Party (UP) of Jan Smuts advocated the continuation of business as usual, that complete segregation was totally impractical but said there was no reason to give Africans political rights. The opposing party (Herenigde Nasionale Party or HNP) led by D.F. Malan had two plans: total segregation and what they termed practical apartheid. Total segregation argued that that Africans should be moved back out of the cities and into their homelands: only male migrant workers would be allowed into the cities, to work in the most menial jobs. Practical apartheid recommended that the government intervene to establish special agencies to direct African workers to employment in specific white businesses. The HNP advocated total segregation as the eventual ideal and goal of the process but recognized that it would take many years to get African labor out of the cities and factories. Establishment of Practical Apartheid The practical system included complete separation of races, prohibiting all intermarriage between Africans, Coloureds, and Asians. Indians were to be repatriated back to India, and the national home of Africans would be in the reserve lands. Africans in urban areas were to be migratory citizens, and black trade unions would be banned. Although the UP won a significant majority of the popular vote (634,500 to 443,719), because of a constitutional provision that provided greater representation in rural areas, in 1948 the NP won a majority of seats in the parliament. The NP formed a government led by D.F. Malan as PM, and shortly thereafter practical apartheid became the law of South Africa for the next forty years. Sources Clark NL, and Worger WH. 2016. South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid. London: Routledge.Hinds LS. 1985. Apartheid in South Africa and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Crime and Social Justice 24:5-43.Lichtenstein A. 2005. Making Apartheid Work: African Trade Unions and the 1953 Native Labour (Settlement of Disputes) Act in South Africa. The Journal of African History 46(2):293-314.Skinner R. 2017. The dynamics of anti-apartheid: international solidarity, human rights . Britain, France and the Decolonization of Africa: Future Imperfect? London: UCL Press. p 111-130.and decolonization

Monday, October 21, 2019

Strategic Organizational Management in Moog Controls, Philippines

Strategic Organizational Management in Moog Controls, Philippines Free Online Research Papers Strategic operations management could not be illustrated in a simple form for Moog Controls since it involves the entire organization in its planning, execution and improvements. On the other hand, it can be simply described as paving the way for the organization to reach its future state based on its current status. Strategy involves the senior management team planning for the organization’s competitive advantage, balancing and forecasting the consequences of these strategic decisions and finally looking into the long-term implications of such decisions. (Brown et al. 2005) The strategic areas that are encompassed within operations management include scheduling, quality management, process technology and inventory management. Bill Moog has always known that the work environment played an important role in any company’s success. He has observed the manufacturing environments of other industries and noticed that employees worked better when they were treated with trust and respect. These modest ideas rested the base for what would ultimately become part of Moog’s much-acclaimed work environment and culture. (About Moog 2010) It could safely be said, therefore that the strategy involved in improving Moog Controls Philippines revolves around its human resources, from proper selection, training, developing and maintaining them, keeping them involved in achieving the whole organization’s goals. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The human resources function in Moog has evolved from being a business function in the organization – administrative personnel maintenance tasks, to a business partner that catered to learning and development of employees, and finally as a strategic partner whose roles include talent management, performance management, competency management and succession planning. (Bhatia 2008) In the Philippines, a country that currently encourages its labor force to work abroad, selecting and hiring competent employees is difficult, simply because the salaries being offered here are a lot smaller than other countries. (Macaraig 2010 Torio 2010) On the other hand, doing business in the Philippines is relatively easy, considering that the business norms that the Filipinos value are the following: courtesy, social events, grooming and hygiene, dining, religion and superstition, equal opportunities, savings, and word of honor and integrity. (Andres 1997) These are the basis of most multinati onal companies in hiring, training, motivating and retaining their current workforce. Moog’s culture and philosophy revolves around trust – an employee can trust that everyone he works with is competent. Moog Controls operates in teams, creating a democratic environment and job titles are overlooked. Employees are developed, recognized and rewarded for their efforts, making them proud of their output. Moog Controls, Philippines has accepted the concept of Hamel and Prahalad (1994) that the human resources must be linked to the organization’s core competencies, being â€Å"a bundle of skills and technologies rather than a single discrete skill or technology,† – and skills come from human means. Consequently, in 2005, Moog Controls, Philippines has been the recipient of the Personnel Managers Association of the Philippines (PMAP) Outstanding Program of the Year Award in their demonstration of the Filipino worker at his best, and the risk that the company has taken in trusting its employees. (Mosqueda 2005) Performance management A performance management system is a process that involves identifying, measuring, encouraging, evaluating, improving and rewarding employee performance. It is basically an employee appraisal system that (a) improves the employee performance by making them realize and utilize their full potential in carrying out their tasks; (b) provides information to employees and managers in making work-related decisions. (Purposes of Performance Management System 2010) From the feedback mechanisms, development concerns, documentation, diagnoses of organizational problems, diagnoses of organizational problems and employment decisions, the following employee necessities have been realized: Competitive salaries and benefits, work-life balance, educational assistance through academe and trainings in other facilities, attractive retirement benefits, stock investment options, comprehensive health programs, recreational activities, employee exchange programs, and trainings in other facilities (Moog 201 0). PROCESS MANAGEMENT Just In Time (JIT) JIT is fully dependent on an integrated and strategic approach linking customer requirements with supplier capabilities and excellence in internal operations. In Japan, JIT has grown into a total management system from marketing to delivery. It has presented Japanese companies with a sturdy competitive advantage over their Western rival (Harrison 1992). Moog has adopted this lean production, Japanese manufacturing approach developed by the Toyota Motor Company whose main principle is focused on the removal of all waste from the operations environment. The produced amount fills in the exact number required when it is needed. The major forms of waste or contributors or sources of waste that have been identified are: overproduction, waiting, transportation, the process itself, stock on hand, motion, defective and goods (Brown et al. 2005) Consequently, with the use of JIT, Moog Controls has also included the use of the kanban system or the â€Å"card† system of communicating to, from and within operating departments, signalling to trigger an action. (Kanban System 2010) JIT has addressed the challenges of Moog with holding inventory, such as, storage costs, loss or stagnancy of capital, obsoleting of stocks, revolving capital for the organization has increased, and losses to deterioration, theft or damage was minimized greatly. Understanding the risks and the magnitude of accountability when managing the risks involved in the JIT system has further motivated the employees to comply and exceed quality standards that have been put in place. AS 9100 Certification AS 9100 is the quality management standard specifically written for the aerospace industry. It has long been considered by some entities, such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that the ISO 900 series of standards are inadequate in terms of ensuring quality and safety in the â€Å"high risk† aerospace industry. The existing description of AS 9100, Revision B, brings together its standard with ISO 9001: 2000 and has extra necessities regarding Regulatory Compliance and the following aerospace-sector specific requirements such as configuration management, design phase, verification, validation and testing processes, reliability, maintainability and safety, product identification, documentation and control of production process changes, production equipment, tools and numerical control machine programs, and many more. Accordingly, ISO 9001:2000 is completely incorporated within AS9100 in addressing aviation safety concerns. (AS9100 The Standard for Aerospace 2010) The Japanese 5-S Moog Controls Philippines also practices the Japanese 5S method of workplace improvement. This is a housekeeping system of keeping the shared work areas organized to maintain morale and efficiency. The main point of 5S is simply putting everything in its proper storage place lessening the time used in looking for things needed, improving the work flow process instilling ownership amongst employees. (5S: Japanese concept of workplace improvement 2010) The 5S are: Seiri (Separating): This is sorting only the needed materials in the workplace and storing or discarding those that are not important. Seiton (Sorting): This catalogues tools and materials in the workplace, keeping them close to the work station they are needed in, stored in a fashion that removes extra motion. Seiso (Shine): This simply indicates that the workstation and work area should be maintained clean after every job. Seiketsu (Standardizing): This means a consistent, standardized work practice. Each employee knows exa ctly what his tasks or responsibilities are. Shitsuke (Sustaining): Meaning maintaining the optimized standards, and not returning back to the old ways of operating. Six Sigma Six sigma is a statistical problem solving methodology that helps enhance organizational operations. It ensures a quality level of 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO), with a rate of improvement of 70 percent or more. It is data-driven based on the Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control method undertaken to create bottom-line breakthrough change.(Statistical Six Sigma Definition 2010). The DMAIC method of six sigma is a formalized problem solving method used to improve effectiveness of the production processes. The six key principles of six sigma involve: (1) Focus on the customer (2) Identify and understand the value stream process (3) Manage, improve and smoothen the process flow (4) Remove non value-added steps and waste (5) Manage by fact and reduce variation (6) Involve and equip the people involved in the process (7) Undertake improvement activities in a systematic way. The success of Moog’s status as a world-class manufacturer and innovator rests largely on its human resources and the programs included in HR development. As seen on Moog’s website, there are testimonies from individuals posted that emulate Moog’s performance management processes (Our People: Asia Pacific 2010), especially the benefits that they have been recipients of. What is encouraging in this scenario is that Moog as organization also benefits from the skills, knowledge and talents gained by the individual. Processes, innovation and technological advancements have more often than not originated within the organization itself – a result of trusting its employees to â€Å"run† the company as innovation and process improvements have always been within arm’s length. The effect of caring and uplifting employee morale is not only experienced by Moog, but also by other successful companies, such as The Tata Group of India, Allen and Co, GE, and Toyota. The flattened organizational structure that promotes democracy, easy communication and the sharing of knowledge through social networks currently presents a better means of raising accountability in employees, and also finding and solving operational barriers that can lead to optimization of work. (Maqsood Walker 2007) Just like in any organization, any undertaking’s results can be seen through profit. Moog’s overall annual diluted earnings per share has reached an all-time high in 2009 at $2.75 – more than double its amount ten years before at $0.80, under a ten year compound growth rate of 9%. (Moog Annual Report 2009) Although the organization has been affected by the economic crisis, it still brags of $1,849M net sales and $85.1M net earnings. These figures would not have been met if there was a weak support on the HR level, allowing uncontrollable attrition and retrenchments during the financial crisis of 2007 to 2010. The investments the organization has done in developing their manpower and knowledge base has made them resilient in such cases, being affected but not overly alarmed by such crises. The shift in the role of human resource management, from being just administrative business solutions to strategic partners in planning, has been the root of most of Moog’s accomplishments. Strategic decisions, therefore, must take into consideration the welfare of the human resources involved. The shift to honing knowledge workers would create innovations in processes, methods and other operational procedures, enhancing not only that employee’s team performance but also the performance of the organization as a whole. Continuous improvements under the JIT, six sigma and kaizen methods of operations will take place constantly, causing technological advancements, product advancements and process improvements and cost effectiveness that can benefit the organization itself. Process improvements and innovation is not an instant fix to any operational activity; therefore, time, technology, money and skill are required to carry these through. Skill is the most important ingredient in innovation, and skills can only be taken from the human aspect of any industry; thus the accomplishment of any strategic operations management plan or for any quality method would only be realized through human resources. Research Papers on Strategic Organizational Management in Moog Controls, PhilippinesThe Project Managment Office SystemAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfPETSTEL analysis of IndiaDefinition of Export QuotasIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalOpen Architechture a white paperInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesResearch Process Part One

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Minerals That Live on the Earths Surface

Minerals That Live on the Earth's Surface Geologists know about thousands of different minerals locked in rocks, but when rocks are exposed at the Earths surface and fall victim to weathering, just a handful of minerals remain. They are the ingredients of sediment, which over geologic time returns to sedimentary rock. Where the Minerals Go When the mountains crumble to the sea, all of their rocks, whether igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic, break down. Physical or mechanical weathering reduces the rocks to small particles. These break down further by chemical weathering in water and oxygen. Only a few minerals can resist weathering indefinitely: zircon is one and native gold is another. Quartz resists for a very long time, which is why sand, being nearly pure quartz, is so persistent. Given enough time even quartz dissolves into silicic acid, H4SiO4. But most of the silicate minerals that compose rocks turn into solid residues after chemical weathering. These silicate residues are what make up the minerals of the Earths land surface. The olivine, pyroxenes, and amphiboles of igneous or metamorphic rocks react with water and leave behind rusty iron oxides, mostly the minerals goethite and hematite. These are important ingredients in soils, but theyre less common as solid minerals. They also add brown and red colors to sedimentary rocks. Feldspar, the most common silicate mineral group and the main home of aluminum in minerals, reacts with water too. Water pulls out silicon and other cations (CAT-eye-ons), or ions of positive charge, except for aluminum. The feldspar minerals thus turn into hydrated aluminosilicates that are clays. Amazing Clays Clay minerals are not much to look at, but life on Earth depends on them. At the microscopic level, clays are tiny flakes, like mica but infinitely smaller. At the molecular level, clay is a sandwich made of sheets of silica tetrahedra (SiO4) and sheets of magnesium or aluminum hydroxide (Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3). Some clays are a proper three-layer sandwich, a Mg/Al layer between two silica layers, while others are open-face sandwiches of two layers. What makes clays so valuable for life is that with their tiny particle size and open-faced construction, they have very large surface areas and can readily accept many substitute cations for their Si, Al and Mg atoms. Oxygen and hydrogen are available in abundance. From the viewpoint of living cells, clay minerals are like machine shops full of tools and power hookups. Indeed, even the building blocks of life- amino acids and other organic molecules- are enlivened by the energetic, catalytic environment of clays. The Makings of Clastic Rocks But back to sediments. With the overwhelming majority of surface minerals consisting of quartz, iron oxides and clay minerals, we have the ingredients of mud. Mud is the geological name of a sediment that is a mixture of particle sizes ranging from sand size (visible) to clay size (invisible), and the worlds rivers steadily deliver mud to the sea and to large lakes and inland basins. That is where the clastic sedimentary rocks are born, sandstone and mudstone and shale in all their variety. The Chemical Precipitates When the mountains are crumbling, much of their mineral content dissolves. This material reenters the rock cycle in other ways than clay, precipitating out of solution to form other surface minerals. Calcium is an important cation in igneous rock minerals, but it plays little part in the clay cycle. Instead, calcium remains in the water, where it affiliates with carbonate ion (CO3). When it becomes concentrated enough in seawater, calcium carbonate comes out of solution as calcite. Living organisms can extract it to build their calcite shells, which also become sediment. Where sulfur is abundant, calcium combines with it as the mineral gypsum. In other settings, sulfur captures dissolved iron and precipitates as pyrite. There is also sodium left over from the breakdown of the silicate minerals. That lingers in the sea until circumstances dry up the brine to a high concentration, when sodium joins chloride to yield solid salt or halite. And what of the dissolved silicic acid? That too is extracted by living organisms to form their microscopic silica skeletons. These rain down upon the seafloor and gradually become chert. Thus every part of the mountains finds a new place in the Earth.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

People in History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

People in History - Essay Example This paper has selected Herbert Hoover and Frances Perkins as its two discussions who are considered to have played key roles in forming the America we know of today. Herbert Hoover, the 31st United States President, was born to a Quaker home and specialized in mining engineering (Hoover 19). He attained American and global prominence in humanitarian liberation efforts, in Belgium war-time, and worked as chair of the United States Food Administration throughout the First World War (Schiff 66). Hoover, an internationally qualified engineer, believed greatly in the Efficiency Movement, which detained that the government, as well as the financial system, were puzzled with inadequacy and waste, and could be enhanced by experts who could spot the problems and unravel them (Hoover 21). He also trusted in the significance of volunteerism along with of the role of people in society and their financial system. Herbert, who had made a petite fortune in his mining job, was the former of two United States leaders to donate their income (President Kennedy was the other) (Schiff 70). When the 1929 Crash of Wall Street hit less than 8 months after Herbert assumed office, he attempted to fight the resulting Great Depression with Congressional enforced attempts, tariffs like the Smoot-Hawley Tariff, public projects like the Hoover Dam, a rise from 25% in the top tax bracket to 63%, and raises in corporate taxes. These proposals did not create economic recovery in his term but worked as th e foundation for a variety of policies integrated in Franklin D. Roosevelts government (Hoover 34). After 1933, Hoover became a spokesperson against the domestic and international policies in Roosevelts New Deal. In 1947, President Truman brought Hoover back to assist in making the federal government more efficient by setting up the Hoover Commission. The agreement

Friday, October 18, 2019

Management and Leadership Paper on Parent Teacher Organization Assignment

Management and Leadership Paper on Parent Teacher Organization - Assignment Example Although education is a different domain of life compared to business, healthcare or infrastructure, yet it is an essential part of one’s life. The industrial revolution is said to have brought immense change in educational system in the United States and has left its insightful impact on administration and execution of educational system. Referring to educational institutions or schools as organizations, the parent-teacher organizations or parent-teacher associations are the informal or formal groups formed by parents and teachers of an educational institution or locality aimed at providing the best education and learning to their students. The growing appreciation of the fact that all aspects of value education and school improvement including tough set of courses, teaching and promoting active learning, rigorous assessments, and effective school management and classroom organization can be more successful with effective involvement of families and communities, through the P TO/PTAs. Research has proven that PTOs help in better liaison between parents and teachers with respect to students’ academic performance, social behavior, responses to environment and needs, psychological behavior and attitudes

Has Kuwait Prospered with Western Relations Essay

Has Kuwait Prospered with Western Relations - Essay Example Surrounded by warring neighbors Kuwait is well noted for its wealth and stability (Crystal). Long time a bulwark for the West and the United States against many of the more radical regimes of the day, the United States had very close ties both politically and economically with the affluent rulers in Kuwait (Sharp). It was by using these relations to first put themselves into a position of prosperity, then reclaim their nation from Iraq, followed by the remarkable accomplishment of not only rebuilding but improving their position in the world society, that Kuwait managed to remain intact. Working with the vast resources of the West, the clever rulers of Kuwait have turned tragedy into fortune. By first examining the state of the Kuwaiti – United States/Western relations before the Gulf War and then researching the effects that the war itself had on the country, followed by the method that the Kuwaitis have used these results to its advantage to recover, we will answer the question: Is Kuwait better off because of Western Relations? This paper will seek to prove if indeed sometimes war can be good for a country and that if in the long term, security and economic concerns, for both countries, were and continue to be to this day, the driving factor behind the United States – Kuwaiti relations. ... , security and economic concerns, for both countries, were and continue to be to this day, the driving factor behind the United States – Kuwaiti relations. The country of Kuwait Kuwait, in a region prone to chaos and unrest is a remarkable example of exactly the opposite. Founded in the eighteenth century, with aid from the British, Kuwait has been ruled continuously by one family, the Sabah clan (Crystal). This style of government has produced a positive and growing economy which easily transitioned to the oil industry with the discovery of large reserves within the country’s borders Continuing after the death of ruler Mubarak the Great, the Sabah family has accomplished a rare feat in holding power and satisfying their population. This has been made substantially easier by the amount of foreign interest money that is consistently pumped in their economy (Bennet). United States foreign policy has long focused on offering assistance and influence in the Middle East in a reas that would help produce stability for the United States National Interests (Sharp). Long a top priority, the oil Fields of Kuwait were among the first assets protected by the United States under their defense agreement with the Sabah rulers. Although terrorism in the Kuwaiti area has remained low, the continued threat made by various terrorist organizations, both in the past and today made it imperative that workable defense treaties exist. By allowing other countries to provide a major portion of the defensive forces in the country, Kuwait was able to focus their wealth and influence on other issues. It was the aggression of Saddam and Iraq that tipped the balance of power in the region to one that required a response by the western powers (Hassan). The actions caused by the overreaching

Thursday, October 17, 2019

International Marketing Communications Plan 03062 Essay

International Marketing Communications Plan 03062 - Essay Example tage comes from its emphasis on social responsibility, ethical trade and delivering value to customers who believe in the same values as The Body Shop. The marketing plan proposes to use these values as a pillar to form the marketing strategy which would be directed towards the younger segment that is prone to adopting new trends early. The Body Shop International was set up by Dame Anita Roddick and sells skin and beauty products. The brand combines activism and marketing to encourage men and women to focus on social and environmental issues. The brand operates in 60 markets worldwide and has more than 2500 stores that work on a franchise based model. They also have the new Hemp Body Care line and The Body Shop at Home line as well. (The Body Shop, 2015) The brand believes in fair trade and has set up its own fair trade program called Community Fair Trade. This program involves 30 suppliers in 20 countries and provides 25,000 people worldwide with income to build their future. The Body Shop also sources its raw materials from their suppliers (The Body Shop, 2015). Since 1994, The Body Shop has helped raise funds and awareness for domestic violence. Since 2004, over 4 million pounds has been donated to partners who prevent, support and protect women and children from domestic abuse (The Body Shop, 2015). Protecting the planet is an important value for the Body Shop. They take full responsibility of their carbon footprint and aim to minimize their impact on the planet. This includes plants to reduce energy consumption and waste generation and change attitudes around the world about ecofriendly products (The Body Shop, 2015). The Body Shop does not face competition from well-known brand names like Mac, Sephora or Chanel because its product offerings and target market is different. In China, the competition comes from brands that originate from Japan or Korea like Missha or the Face Shop. These brands have already established a presence in the Chinese market and

Your objective is to understand how management (directors and his Essay

Your objective is to understand how management (directors and his team) of BP company, dealt with the oil spill in the gulf of Mexico - Essay Example They came up with approximation of ninety days and forty billion as the cost through seeking money from other companies. According to Bryant & Hunter (1-2), BP started by attempting to install a valve to shutoff one of the leaks that were underwater, though, it was a difficult process that they thought would not succeed. Two days later, they had managed to stop oil flow from one of the three leaking points on the riser in the Gulf of Mexico and the spoiled oil well. However, this effort did not solve the overall problem of leakage and they had to improvise another method to solve the problem completely. They came up with the idea of installing a cofferdam at the end of the riser, though; it was not successful because there was extra formation of hydrate crystals in the dome. This made them use the junk shot method to wad the leak that was undersea by pumping shredded materials into the well at an extremely high

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

International Marketing Communications Plan 03062 Essay

International Marketing Communications Plan 03062 - Essay Example tage comes from its emphasis on social responsibility, ethical trade and delivering value to customers who believe in the same values as The Body Shop. The marketing plan proposes to use these values as a pillar to form the marketing strategy which would be directed towards the younger segment that is prone to adopting new trends early. The Body Shop International was set up by Dame Anita Roddick and sells skin and beauty products. The brand combines activism and marketing to encourage men and women to focus on social and environmental issues. The brand operates in 60 markets worldwide and has more than 2500 stores that work on a franchise based model. They also have the new Hemp Body Care line and The Body Shop at Home line as well. (The Body Shop, 2015) The brand believes in fair trade and has set up its own fair trade program called Community Fair Trade. This program involves 30 suppliers in 20 countries and provides 25,000 people worldwide with income to build their future. The Body Shop also sources its raw materials from their suppliers (The Body Shop, 2015). Since 1994, The Body Shop has helped raise funds and awareness for domestic violence. Since 2004, over 4 million pounds has been donated to partners who prevent, support and protect women and children from domestic abuse (The Body Shop, 2015). Protecting the planet is an important value for the Body Shop. They take full responsibility of their carbon footprint and aim to minimize their impact on the planet. This includes plants to reduce energy consumption and waste generation and change attitudes around the world about ecofriendly products (The Body Shop, 2015). The Body Shop does not face competition from well-known brand names like Mac, Sephora or Chanel because its product offerings and target market is different. In China, the competition comes from brands that originate from Japan or Korea like Missha or the Face Shop. These brands have already established a presence in the Chinese market and

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Supply chain management and SC partnership Essay

Supply chain management and SC partnership - Essay Example He also believed that companies should own and control virtually every aspect of its business. Late 1970's and early 1980's witnessed the development of the manufacturing strategy paradigm. The thinkers of the time argued that a company should devise a focused strategy, creating a focused factory that performs a core activity that the company is best at. Late 1980's saw the development of quality management for setting international quality standards. The International Organization for Standardization created the ISO 9000 certification standards with this purpose in view. Innovations in the process of operations led to the development of Business Process Reengineering in the 1990's. Companies saw the need to become lean in their manufacturing process to remain competitive and BPR aided by helping them eliminate the non-value added steps in their manufacturing process and computerizing the remaining ones to achieve low-cost and higher quality. Then came the Supply chain Management; applying a total system approach to managing the flow from suppliers through factories and warehouses to the end customers. Internet aided the progression during the late 1990's bringing supply chain management to its current level as an essential element of business activity (Chase, Jacobs and Acquilano, 2004). Supply-chain management (SCM) is a method for integrating a manufacturer's operations with those of all of its suppliers and customers and their intermediaries. SCM seeks to integrate the relationships and operations of several-tier suppliers in meeting necessities such as quantity, delivery and the timely exchange of information (Gunasekaran and Ngai, 2004). Supply Chain Management Supply chain management is the discipline of managing the movement of raw materials into an organization and the finished products out of the organization. SCM is an approach that encompasses every process concerned in manufacturing a product, from source to consumption. There has to be a linkage between the suppliers that provide inputs, manufacturing and service support operations that transform the inputs into products and services, and the distribution and local service providers that localize the product (Chase, Jacobs and Acquilano, 2004). This involves building a network that allows a flow of materials, without a break or hitch, throughout the process of production. This flow is fuelled by co-operation, and co-ordination among the diverse channel partners. Supply chain management thrives on improving efficiency and reducing cost of production by focusing on the core competencies of a company. Functions such as procurement of raw materials and distribution of products are outsourced to companies that are better equipped and more cost-efficient to perform them. Strategic planning is necessary to develop a network to monitor the supply chain so that it is efficient, costs less and delivers high quality and value to customers. Information technology has helped integrate the various components of SCM by building a network that aids in sharing necessary data between all supply chain partners within a system. A company

Monday, October 14, 2019

Pornography and Sexual Violence Essay Example for Free

Pornography and Sexual Violence Essay The class is social psychology. Please use proper headings, double spacing, 12 pt font, one-inch margins, page numbering, and logical flow from topic to topic. Citations may be from the Web, texts, books or scientific journals. Magazine and newspaper citations are generally unacceptable. Please be original with your own views. Being with a strong, creative, original thesis clearly stating what you are trying to show.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Pornography is a term utilized to depict the various sexual practices and desires to arouse the viewer sexually. It should also be clearly distinguished from the term ‘obscenity’.   Obscenity is frequently utilized legally to suggest pornographic material.   This material may be deemed as illegal if it crosses all the social barriers of decency and is liable for criminal punishment.   Sexual images of women can create a positive influence or a negative influence on man.   Women can be portrayed as objects of sex, pleasure, abuse and violence.   This has resulted in degradation of the status of women in the current world. Feminists throughout the world are objecting at the problems pornography has created for women.   During the early 1980’s, pornography became a huge feminist issue.   The political situation in the West was also changing during that period.   People began to feel the need for greater amount of freedom.   Several of the moral issues such as abortion, reproductive rights, sexuality, etc, began to be questioned.   Abortion began to be accepted giving the women greater amount of control over their body.   Today, women should be pure before the marriage and need to be loyal to their husbands during their married life. Marriage is a relationship in which sex is performed only for reproductive purposes and not for pleasure.   If a woman indulged in sex outside their marriage, it was considered to be a form of prostitution.   Frequently, women are forced into getting them photographed for creating pornographic material.   The pornographic industry throughout the world has turned out into a multibillion-dollar industry (about $ %6 billion), providing material in various forms including movies, internet, books, videos, etc (Malamuth et al, 2005, Utah State University, 2007 Webb, 2007). Recently, there has been an increase in the number of cases of child abuse throughout the world.   The exact cause for this has not been understood clearly.   A study conducted by Knudsen does not show a direct relationship between sexual violence against children and pornography.   A thorough assessment was created using laboratory findings and case studies of those who had suffered from child sexual abuse.   It was found that child sexual abuse was only affected to a slight and indirect extent by pornography (Knudsen, 2005).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Frequently, people associate pornography with erotica.   However, there is a lot of difference between these two aspects.   Erotica is a situation of an intimate relationship between humans such that closeness, communication, intimacy and sexual arousal are felt.   Erotica utilize various symbols for communication and the feeling of interaction.   It could be considered to be one system of language or dialect.   Hence, erotica is usually shared between people belonging to close group, culture, religion, sect, ethnic community, etc. People belonging to other communities, sects, group, etc, would be unable to share and communicate with their partner.   Hence, the erotic appeal may not be present in such circumstances.   Erotica cannot mix with brutality.   To some extent erotica can vary from one taste to another.   Many people use the term erotica in order to demonstrate and applaud pornography.   However, both these terms need to be completely differentiated from one another.   Pornography is the misuse of women and children in the name of erotica. This misuse can be considered in two ways.   Firstly, a woman may be abused and forced into pornography through the erotica.   Besides, many of the female pornography material depict man dominating and abusing women and treating them as mere objects.   I do feel that pornography directly and indirectly creates a situation in which the woman is victimized.   This may further the chances of women getting sexually offended (Utah State University, 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Many of the material available today on the internet and the print media has been generated by threatening women into certain acts that have not been expected.   For example, Linda Marchiano was threatened with a gun to perform several sexual acts in the film Deep Throat.   Today graphic material is available on the Internet of women being tortured, raped and victimized for the sake of sexual arousal.   I do feel that this may not create a sense of erotica but instead encourage violence and crime against women (Utah State University, 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Pornography has changed the entire concept of masculinity and femininity.   Earlier, these two genders were considered as complimentary to one another.   A woman was basically made to supplement the needs of man.   However, pornography has spoilt this relationship between man and woman.   Indirectly man is victimizing women in the name of pornography.   Men dominate women and children using pornographic material.   Man would try to conquer other sexually, and women would have to submit to the sexual needs of man.   In a husband-wife relationship, the wife would become the weaker party and the husband would become the stronger one. Once this domination is created, every chance exists for the man to abuse and ill-treat the woman.   Today pornography has been closely associated with male supremacy.   As pornography is becoming more and more common in today’s world, it is having a negative influence on the people.   Pornography touches upon male dominance, sexual inequality and sexual subordination.   Hence, people consider and use violence, force and domination as a part of sex.   This helps to spread terrorism and hatred amongst the population.   Today, people are unable to identify the thin line present between pornography and erotica (Utah State University, 2007).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Pornography may influence the individual to various extents depending on the individual factors, the type of pornographic material, the extent to which the material causes sexual arousal, etc.   Studies have demonstrated that when children and adolescents are exposed to pornographic material, there are chances that these children on becoming adults would have perverted sexual tendencies. They may also perform violent acts in order to gain sexual gratification.   However, some studies have demonstrated that expose of the child or adolescent to a minimal amount of pornographic material during early age would help them to benefit later, as they would be aware of the sexual processes that occur in adults.   However, this area needs to be thoroughly researched further to determine the type of pornographic material and the extent to which they would benefit (Malamuth et al, 2005).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The World needs to change its attitude toward pornography.   To some extent individuals possessing certain characteristics may be exposed to a greater extent than others to pornographic material.   A study conducted by Malamuth et al (2005) demonstrated that men, who were exposed to material containing sexuality and violence against women, accepted these attacks secretly.   The acceptance was much greater in men who were exposed to pornographic material than those who were not.   Men who were exposed to media presentations of material, which glorified sexual attacks on women, developed aggressive attitudes towards women (Malamuth et al, 2005).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus it can be seen that pornographic material is harmful to the development of cordial relationships throughout the world between man and woman.   The effect of pornographic material varies depending on the culture, region of the world, sect, religion, etc.   Scientists should try to develop a method of determining the direct relationship that exists between pornography and sexual violence against women. The Internet may be a very useful resource for teenagers and students.   However, this resource could also be misused, as activity may be difficult to monitor.   It is high time for the law-enforcement agencies and parents to help control the activity of teenagers and students over the Internet.   The manner in which the child or teenagers utilizes the Internet plays a major role in the development of the personality and behavior later in life (Paul et al, 2005 Bremer, 2005). References: Bremer, J. (2005). â€Å"The Internet and children: advantages and disadvantages.† Psychiatr Clin N Am, 14(3), 405-428. Knudsen, D. D. (2005). â€Å"Child sexual abuse and pornography: Is there a relationship?† Journal of Family Violence, 3(4), 253-267. Malamuth, N., Huppin, M. (2005). â€Å"Pornography and Teenagers: The Importance of Individual Differences.† Adol Med Clin, 16(2). Paul, B. Bryant, J. A. (2005). â€Å"Adolescents and the Internet.† Adol Med Clin, 16(2). Utah State University (2007). â€Å"Lesson 10. Pornography, Violence, and the Law.† Retrieved on December 7, 2007, from Utah State University Web site: Villani, V. S. (2005). â€Å"Media literacy for clinicians and parents.† Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am, 14(3), 523-553. Webb, E. (2007). â€Å"Pornography or Censorship-Silence or Choice?† Retrieved on December 7, 2007, from DSP Web site:

Sunday, October 13, 2019

A comparison between US GAAP and German HGB

A comparison between US GAAP and German HGB A comparison between US GAAP and German HGB By January 2014 Supervisor: PERMISSION TO STORE RESEARCH PAPER IN LIBRARY AND MAKE AVAILABLE FOR USE I, Claudiu Ghiuzan, do hereby irrevocably consent to and authorize the Library of University of Applied Management Studies, Mannheim, to file the attached Research Paper entitled: â€Å"A comparison between US GAAP and German HGB†, and make such paper available for use, circulation, and reproduction by Library users at the University of Applied Management Studies, Mannheim. I state at this time that the contents of this paper are my own work and completely original. ____________________________________________ (Signature) _______________________________________________ (Date) Chapter 1 1. Introduction When the multinational enterprises work with different accounting systems it might be possible to come with different results at the end of the year. This is the case of Siemens AG with the annual report from 2000. The German corporation ´s stock has been traded on the NYSE (New York Stock Exchange) and according to their report from US GAAP (General Accepted Accounting Principles) their net income was â‚ ¬8,860 million while on German GAAP based on the same calculations their net income was reported as â‚ ¬7,901 million. This means practically 14% more net income (Bruetsch 2003). HGB and US GAAP are different accounting systems that companies use to organize their financial statements. HGB is primary used for companies in Germany and US GAAP in United States. Basically the financial reports of the multinationals are written according to the financial standards from the country they operate. This research paper will give you an overview of the main differences between the both systems and will help you to better understand the practices used by the two important market leaders in the world. Chapter 2 2.1 Literature review 2.2 U.S. GAAP The accounting standards in United States have been first set by the AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants). In 1939 AICPA created also the Committee on Accounting Procedure and after this in 1959 it was replaced by Accounting Principles Board. In 1984 the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) and the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) determined the accounting standards in U.S (, 2012). The US GAAP is influenced basically by the Common Law of United states. 2.3 German GAAP Different from US GAAP is the German HGB or Handelsgesetzbuch, a commercial code established first in 1897 and replaced in 1938 conform the European standards. The German accounting system was used also in Austria since 1938 ( There are many differences between the German and U.S. accounting standards and it seems quite important for the financial employees to know them, mostly when they work in a multinational company. Some of the major differences consist in value-added tax, capitalization of software costs, personnel restructuring, employee share purchase plans, deferred income including derivatives, maintenance accruals, unrealized gains on marketable securities and share offering costs. The following section will analyse this differences and will offer a better understanding of the terms used in German GAAP and U.S. GAAP. Chapter 3 3.1 General Analyses 3.2 Value-added tax In the German GAAP the value-added tax or VAT needs to be depreciated and the VAT recoveries recorded as other operating income. Under U.S. GAAP the capitalized VAT is considered a long-term receivable rather than plant and equipment or property. For that reason the depreciation and operating income are not recognized (Alexander et al. 2004). 3.3 Personnel restructuring Under U.S. GAAP, the estimated cost of employee separation are accrued in the period that the employee accepts the offer of termination while under German GAAP these costs are often financial on the basis of the Company when it announced the intention to reduce its workforce (Alexander et al. 2004). 3.4 Deferred income including derivatives According to U.S. GAAP the income of a company from a basic agreement is to be distributed over the duration of the agreement while under German GAAP this income is to be considered in accordance with the economic useful life (Alexander et al. 2004). â€Å"Under German GAAP, gains and losses resulting from the termination of interest rate swaps are recognized in the year of termination while according to U.S. GAAP, gains and losses on interest rate swaps accounted for as hedges are amortized over the remaining outstanding period of the interest rate swap or the remaining life of the hedged position, whichever is shorter† (Alexander et al. 2004). Under German GAAP, â€Å"the foreign currency forward contracts and options used to hedge against the currency risk involved with a planned acquisition† are accounted as a hedge without affecting net income â€Å"as an offset against the acquisition cost of the investment† while under U.S. GAAP may not be accounted for as a hedge (Alexander et al 2004). 3.5 Maintenance accruals The German GAAP requires that the cost of maintenance associated to the financial year and only the ones incurred within the first three months of the following year have been accrued at every end of the period while under U.S. GAAP, the cost of maintenance is considered in the periods incurred (Alexander et al. 2004). 3.6 Unrealized gains on marketable securities Under U.S. GAAP the marketable equity securities other than investments accounted for by equity method or marketable debt, are classified as either available for sale, or as trading, or held to maturity while under German GAAP they are generally carried at historical cost. â€Å"Securities classified as trading or available for sale are reported at fair value at the balance sheet data and held to maturity securities are reported at historical cost. Unrealized gains and losses on trading securities are recorded in net income while unrealized gains and losses on securities categorized as available for sale are recorded, net of income tax, in shareholders ´ equity† (Alexander et al. 2004). 3.7 Share offering cost The share offering costs are written as extraordinary expenses in the income statement according to German GAAP while under U.S. GAAP are charged against the proceeds of the offering (Alexander et al. 2004). Jà ¼rgen Kirsch, a professor of Finance at the University of Munster explain that the essential differences between German GAAP and U.S. GAAP are seen better at the capital markets and at investors. According to his paper in the financial structure of Germany the capital markets are less important than bank loans while in USA the capital markets are more important than banks. Furthermore the shareholder structure in USA is based on broad distribution of shares while in Germany the private investors are less important (Kirsch 2012). Looking at the basis for tax calculation and distributions we can see that USA has no influence on tax law and in Germany â€Å"tax dictates financial accounting† was abolished. The distribution rules are also different under German GAAP and U.S. GAAP. In Germany building of reserves and distribution constraints are controlled by law, and there are minimum distribution rules based on single accounts. However in USA there are almost no regulations to build reserves. The board determines the distribution and it is based on group accounts (Kirsch 2012). Another significant differences between HGB and US GAAP according to KPMG, one of the biggest professional service companies in the world, are the provisions. The provisions have different recognition criteria, different measurement criteria and different selected specific areas. 3.8 Provisions Recognition criteria Under German GAAP the provisions are based more on the principle of prudent accounting while under U.S. GAAP are recorded for legal/contractual obligations or constructive obligations. The German HGB allows also provisions where no third-party liability exist for example expense accruals, planned repairs or internal costs of the year-end closing. Under U.S. GAAP a liability must exist to a third party at the balance sheet date (KPMG, 2005). Different measurement The measurement criteria are also different. Under U.S. GAAP the amount of provision is based on best estimate while HGB allows greater flexibility and accruals could be substantially higher than under U.S. GAAP (KPMG, 2005). 3.9 Foreign currency translation The German GAAP requires that the financial statements must be recorded in the Euro currency and no other currencies are allowed. Under U.S. GAAP there is no specific currency underlined (KPMG, 2003). 4.0 Tax influences on the Balance sheet According to Grabowski ´s paper under the German GAAP the tax balance sheet and commercial balance sheet are closely connected to each other while under the U.S. GAAP there are no tax influences on the financial statement because the commercial balance sheet is separated from the tax balance sheet (Grabowski, 2012). Chapter 4 5.1 Conclusion This paper provided abroad understanding of the key differences between U.S. GAAP and German GAAP and offered a better analyse of the concepts. Even though both financial systems have some differences in the structure, the basic principles do not differ so much. We can probably say that this differences are influenced by the different laws systems of the countries. Germany for example is based on civil code which has an extensive number of regulations that should be applied to as many special cases as possible and transferred to similar cases while USA is based on common law which implies a limited number of regulations. Here the rules are applied to special cases they were invented for and are decided for individual cases by jurisdiction. After all we can say that U.S. GAAP and German GAAP are simply a combination of dependable standards and due to globalization it become necessary for multinational to understand the both systems in order to operate in this powerful economies. However in the future it might be possible that companies from both countries to report their financial data just according to one financial system. References Alexander, D., Noble, C. (2004), â€Å"Financial Accounting: An International Introduction Second Edition†, Pearson Educational Limited 2004. Available at: [Accessed at 23 Jan. 2014]. Bruetsch, M. (2003), â€Å"U.S. GAAP and German HGB – A comparative Approach†, Oxford Brookes University, [online]. Available at: [Accessed at 22 Jan. 2014]. Grabowski, P. (2012), â€Å"Die wichtigsten Unterschiede zwischen HGB, IAS US-GAAPâ€Å" [online]. Available at: [Accessed at 23 Jan. 2014]. Kirsch, H., J., †International Financial Reportingâ€Å", Institut fà ¼r Rechnungslegung und Wirtschaftsprà ¼fung Westfà ¤lische Wihelms-Università ¤t Mà ¼nster 2012, [online]. Available at: [Accessed at 22 Jan. 2014]. KPMG (2003) ‘Implementing IFRS – Extract from: IFRS compared with US GAAP and German GAAP’ [online]. Available at: [Accessed at 23 Jan 2014]. KPMG (2005) â€Å"Provisions-Significant differences between IFRS/HGB/US-GAAP† [online]. Available at: [Accessed at 23 Jan. 2014]. Investopedia (no date available), â€Å"Handelsgesetzbuch-HGB† [online]. Available at: [Accessed at 23 Jan. 2014]. PWC (2012), â€Å"AP: similarities and differences- 2012†, [online]. Available at: [Accessed at 23 Jan. 2014]. 1

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Risk Taking Behaviour in Adolescence Essay -- Adolescent Behavior

Adolescence is a venerable and unstable time of adjustment in which a child transcends into adulthood (Casey, 2008). During adolescence there are examinable changes in various areas of life. These changes occur physically as the adolescent goes through puberty, as well as psychological changes where high emotional reactivity emerges, and social development is at its height (Casey, 2008). Adolescents are more likely than adults or children to engage in risky behaviour that can subsequently lead to death or illness by drunk driving, carrying weapons, using illegal drugs, and engaging in unprotected sex, which in turn can lead to STD’s and teenage pregnancies (Eaton, 2006). The prior is proof that adolescents do engage in risky behaviour. Through this essay we will explore the various theories of why risky behaviour is at its height during adolescence. An Examination of Adolescence During adolescence emotional reactivity is heightened, and the social environment is changing as adolescents spend more time with their peers than adults (Casey, 2008). To an adolescent, the value of positive information, as well as negative information may be exaggerated which leads to greater emotional reactivity and sensitivity during this growth period (Casey, 2008). This can heighten the incidence of addiction and the onset of psychological disorders (Casey, 2008). There are various theories that attempt to explain why adolescents engage in risky behaviour. One of these theories by Yurgelun-Todd stems from human adolescent brain development, and proposes that cognitive development during the adolescent period is associated with increasingly superior efficiency of cognitive control and affective modulation (Casey, 2008). This theory also suggest... ...odel since some of the studies done may not be accurate. For example, with concern to the study Casey’s discussed concerning delay of gratification study, there was too much variability. Their hunger levels prior to the study should have been recorded, as well as their favourite cookie type because these details may influence how likely the children are to control their impulses. But, overall this model did contribute greatly to the field of adolescent risk taking. Works Cited Casey, B. J., Jones, R. M., & Hare, T. (2008). The adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 111–126. Eaton Reyna, V.F. and Rivers, S.E. (2008). Current theories of risk and rational decision making. Developmental Review, 28, 1–11. Steinberg, L. (2004). Risk taking in adolescence: What changes, and Why? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 51-58.

Friday, October 11, 2019

A Reexamination of the War in Kosovo Essay

The Clinton Administration, along with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), was not completely effective in both identifying the concrete objectives relating to the Kosovo conflict and applying the military resources that were available to resolve that conflict. There are many reasons for this behind this inefficiency. First, there was the general reluctance to get involved in the conflict, for more or less political reasons. Second, there was the constant infighting and territorial battles being waged within the military structure. Third, there was the heavy need to manage media perception, which was perhaps absent in past wars. Lastly, there was the weakness of the military capability itself, most especially in terms of fighting a war under different weather conditions. The Four Factors The first factor that hampered the efficient execution of the war in Kosovo was the general reluctance of American leaders, both civilian and military, to get involved in the first place. There was a widespread feeling that it was not the time for America to be intervening actively in the affairs of a relatively small and unimportant state in Eastern Europe. After all, what was there to be gained by implementing interventionist policies there? Back then, as now, the focus of many political and military planners was Israel and the Middle East, the hotbed of the world; perpetually in crisis. But there was at least a solid rationale for that preoccupation – the Middle East was by far the largest supplier of oil in the world, and stability there was important to the energy supply and thus the overall growth of the U. S. economy. But what was to be gained in Kosovo, especially since much risk was to be undertaken in terms of the country’s resources, as well as its prestige? American had failed to intervene in Rwanda and had been forced to a humiliating retreat in Somalia, and those bitter memories were still fresh in the minds of most Americans. In the Rwandan genocide, America drew heavy criticism from its allies and the world at large for its inaction; in Somalia, America drew derision for its decision to pull out prematurely. Both the political and military establishments suffered from these events, and they understandably wanted to avoid a similar occurrence from happening again. Getting involved in war in which there seemed so little to gain was anathema to many leaders at the time. The constant infighting within the American military and within NATO was the second factor that hampered the Kosovo operations. General Clark detailed many examples of his daily battles with his civilian superiors, as well as his peers from within the military establishment. These incidents, quite obviously, detracted from the efficiency of the operations themselves. For instance, the example of how the some senior staff generals with political access prevented the effective use of Apache helicopters provides a sickening image of how generals on the ground can be obstructed by those who wield political power. The constant fear that other conflicts might erupt in the Persian Gulf and the Korean Peninsula was also an albatross that hung heavily over the collective necks of those involved in the Kosovo war. Allowing these fears to detract from the efficient prosecution of the war could have led to disaster under certain circumstances. The lack of cooperation was not limited to within the American military itself, but in NATO as well. Commanders of other nations were known to disobey Clark’s commands if these orders were interpreted as not being conducive to their respective strategic national interests. Yet, in a way, this was the least of Clark’s problems, for the other allied nations played a lesser role in the conflict in comparison with the U. S. , with the possible exception of Great Britain. It was the problems caused by infighting within the army, as well as disagreements with Washington, that made General Clark’s tenure as SACEUR truly difficult. This perhaps can be attributed to the reality that political objectives and military objectives are rarely one and the same, and the fact that military leaders at the highest levels are rarely apolitical. The greater role played by the media in American wars was also in full-display during the Kosovo conflict. Ever since the Vietnam War, the U. S. had shown a marked distaste for any number of war casualties (This had driven its research into unmanned and â€Å"smart† technologies. ) So much so, in fact, that the enemies of America had long viewed this is as the primary weakness of the nation’s military power. Indeed, this weakness has provided the most basic strategy of terrorist organizations today. They know for a fact that in terms of raw military strength, they are inferior to the United States. Thus, if they ever come under direct attack by the U. S. , their chances of victory are slim. But if they can inflict just enough casualties (usually through guerilla tactics) and have it broadcast over the broadcast media in dramatic fashion, then public opinion might force U. S. forces to withdraw, as was the case in Vietnam. It was under this same hope that Saddam Hussein stood defiant against the United States in the last Iraq War. Lastly, there was the weakness within the military itself, especially in terms of being an all-terrain, all-weather capable fighting force. Many instances within the book and numerous statements made by General Clark point to the fact that the U. S. military is by no means an effective, â€Å"all-weather conditions† army. In fact, it seems as if the attainment of this goal is still a long way off, as has perhaps been underscored more recently by some of the maintenance problems encountered in Iraq. Also, high levels of weapon technology have brought with them their own special set of problems, which could not have been foreseen but nevertheless need to be addressed as soon as possible. These include, among others, the gathering and timely application of intelligence in order to use these weapons to their maximum effect. A lack of cross-understanding between the various military units also contributes to military weakness. In his concluding remarks in Waging Modern War, General Clark says this: In Kosovo my commanders and I found that we lacked the detailed prompt information to campaign effectively against the Serb ground forces. Most of the technologies we had been promoting since the Gulf War were still immature, unable to deal with the vagaries of weather, vegetation, and urban areas, or the limitations of bandwidth and airspace. The discrete service programs didn’t always fit together technically†¦The officers who operated the programs were not qualified to work across service lines and did not understand the full range of national capabilities. I worried about the nature of Joint skills even among senior officers. Of course, notwithstanding these four factors, the war was brought to a successful conclusion – â€Å"successful† meaning that the combat operations against the forces of Slobodan Milosevic proved effective enough to topple the regime of that ruler, and thereby remove the impetus to the racial killings in that region. However, whether or not America achieved its true aims in the Balkans is more open to question, if indeed the Clinton Administration had a clear vision of what those aims were in the first place. The costs of that conflict, both tangible and intangible, must also be analyzed in order to avoid similar mistakes in the future. An Analysis of the Feasibility, Acceptability, and Suitability of the Military Action in Kosovo The concept of feasibility closely ties in to the question â€Å"Can it be done? † With the benefit of hindsight, we might say with complete assurance that yes, the military action undertaken in Kosovo was feasible. However, even without this particular benefit, the question of feasibility still would have been answered in the affirmative. There was perhaps no other military force in the world that could have undertaken the mission in Kosovo, and done so with success. Even before the campaign began, it was almost a forgone conclusion that American forces would prevail. It was only a matter of time, and though unforeseen setbacks would occur along the way, no one truly doubted the ultimate result. Addressing the question of acceptability is a little more complex, but may also be answered in the affirmative. At the time of the conflict, world opinion was crying out for America to do something about the killings under Milosevic. In many ways, the various nations comprising NATO and the U. N. pushed the U. S. into action. Internationally then, military action in Kosovo was acceptable – some might even say it was warranted, due to the role of the U. S. as the global policeman. The war was costly – what war isn’t? – but it gained for the U. S. a level of prestige and credibility that it very much needed after some decidedly embarrassing political problems. The effectiveness of the air campaign and General Clark’s own philosophy of waging war (which de-emphasizes the use of ground troops) resulted in fewer casualties than might otherwise have been expected. This in itself was a potent testimony to American power and a reaffirmation of the high reputation already earned by the American military in the 1991 Gulf War. If the goal in Kosovo was to stop the genocidal killings and bring Slobodan Milosevic to justice, then we can honestly say that military action was suitable. Some pundits may argue that diplomacy would have been a better choice, but they must be reminded that diplomatic methods were tried before any full-scale operations were conducted – and diplomacy failed. With a hard-boiled tyrant such as Milosevic, who deliberately released wave upon wave of racial hate upon his own country, diplomacy could not possibly have a great effect. Even if diplomatic channels could have been used to stop the killings – and this is doubtful – they would have taken far too long to mobilize and would have probably ended up with little to show for it. Conclusion Despite many problems that were unforeseen (and perhaps unavoidable), the military action in Kosovo ended up attaining its major objectives. Still, the operation could have gone better, and more smoothly. In the future, if similar circumstances should come up, both political and military planners would do well to review the lessons learned in this conflict. First, a good amount of political will should be present, and directed at a clear set of pre-defined goals. Second, bickering and infighting within the military should be checked, reduced, and if possible eliminated. Third, all leaders involved in a conflict should be aware of how to manage media perceptions, especially in terms of obtaining continuing public support. Lastly, the capability of the military to wage war under all conditions should be improved and made the top priority of defense spending. When these four factors are improved to their various degrees, then the prosecution of future wars will decidedly become more efficient and effective.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Hitting a Baseball

It has been a proven fact that hitting a baseball is one of the toughest things to accomplish in sports. In the major leagues if you fail 7 out of 10 times you are still considered to be an incredibly good hitter. That statistic shows how challenging it is even for Athletes at the professional level to produce a perfect swing. In order to achieve this perfect swing there is a series of adjustments that must be made. In this essay I will show how hitting a baseball develops through 3 different stages of learning. When someone is first starting off usually around the ages of 7 to 9 , they do not understand that the way a bat is held effects the outcome of the swing. In the beginning process many tend to place the bat in their palm and grip it extremely tight, without aligning their knuckles. They do not realize that holding the bat this way will reduce the range of motion in the swing, causing slower bat speed. Another key component to hitting a baseball is the hitter’s stance. In the beginning stage many crowd the plate, with their toes pretty much touching the corner of the tip of the plate. The legs are extremely bent and the toes are pointing in two different directions. The hands are then placed right next to the ear with both elbows facing up. The hitters back is usually arched at the top, with their shoulders kinds of pushing in to the neck. As the ball is pitched the hitter does not take a step towards the pitch, instead they keep their feet planted on their heels. When the ball is getting closer they begin their swing by dropping the back elbow and lifting the front one up. As the bat begins to cross the plate the head begins to turn away from the ball, because they are using no hip action. The bat is stopped in front of their body, creating no follow through. There may be little or no contact at this point. As a hitter progresses around the middle school stage, one thing they begin to change is the way they grip the bat. Now that they are a little more informed they begin to align the knuckles and place the bat on the fingers instead of on the palm. The hitter now has more flexion in the wrist along them to better their chances of hitting the ball. The stance of the batter is now gradually changing as well. The batter is now able to get in a position to where they can feel a little more comfortable. The knees are just are just slightly bent still allowing them to have some mobility. The toes are both facing in the same direction but are still planted on their heels. The elbows are now facing down instead of up, and the hands are up just above the shoulders and away from the ears. The back is no longer arched and the hitter is now at a stance where they are not as stiff as they once were. As the pitch comes the hitter now takes a step forward to generate some force, and prepare for his swing to begin. As the pitch is coming the hitter now keeps his eyes on the ball as it is coming in and extends hit arms out toward the baseball but slightly drops the barrel of the bat because of this, the hitter might have a tendency to pop the ball up instead of hitting a solid line drive. At this point the swing has now gotten better but still it has not generated bat speed to its full potential. Once the collegiate level is reached the batter now understands all the key fundamentals to hitting a baseball. With many years of practice and execution the hitter’s swing is now at its perfect state making it much easier to create contact and power. At this point the hitter no longer has any difficulty with the grip of the bat, or stance. Their feet are at shoulder width length allowing them to be at their most powerful position. The hitter is on the balls of his or her feet and is no longer on the heels. As the pitch is coming the hitter shifts his weight from the front leg to the back leg. The hitter is creating negative force by taking a step back, then going forward once again. At this point, weight should be about 70 percent on the back leg, 30 percent on the front leg. This allows the hitter to stay on the back leg to generate the most amount of power possible as they are swinging. While this is happening the hitter must also shift his hand back to generate more power in the upper body as well. The next step is the key essential where many beginners go wrong when trying to hit a baseball. Many believe that the hands trigger the swing, but this is untrue. It is the explosion of the hip that creates the swing. The hips start to open and allow the hands to explode through the hitting zone at a much higher rate of speed than if the hands triggered first and were still inhibited by the body. This has been proven by some of the most respected hitting authorities in the world by using high speed motion detection software to analyze a hitter's swing. Once the hips have started to open, the hands shoot through the zone. The hitter drives the nob of the bat to the ball, and keeps the bat through the zone as long as possible. This makes it easier to hit the pitch no matter where it is thrown. Once the bat has made contact the hips naturally finish their rotation as the hands leave the hitting zone and follow through. The weight shifts forward into contact, and all of the steps come together into a fluid, quick swing. Now the batter can produce hard linedrives or homeruns instead of soft grounders or pop ups.